Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
authoritarian parenting styles
low on emotional nurturing, but high on parental direction & control
laissez-faire parenting styles
permissive, allows children to set their own limits
authoritative parenting styles
combines emotional nurturing & parental direction
spanked most often
boys under age 2
linked to spanking
-alcohol or drug abuse
-physical aggression against loved ones
factors in good parenting
-adequate economic resources
-being involved in child's life
-using supportive communication
-support from family & friends
True or False:
fathers engage in more hands-on parenting & take primary responsibility for kids
t or f:
research shows that spanking is usually more effective than timeouts
acc. to Alice Rossi, transition to parenthood is more difficult than to worker or spouse because...
-cultural pressures to become parent, even if they don't want to
-little or no experience with child care
-changes couple's relationship
providing is the man;s responsibility, the home is the woman's
main/secondary provider couple
both partners are equally responsible for providing
co-provider couple
wife's providing resposibilities are not clearly acknowledged
ambivalent provider couple
husband is responsible for homemaking & child care while the wife is the principle breadwinner
role-reversed provider couple
why women do housework:
women have less power in tehir families
conflict & feminist
why women do housework:
culttural expectations of household labor
why women do housework:
couples max. the family economy by trading off between time & energy investments in paid market work & unpaid househild labor
rational investment
why women do housework:
a spouse's household labor is a consequence of his/her resources compared to those of the other spouse
resource hypothesis
why women do houseowrk:
studies the meaning of housework, rather than the practicalities of time & income
gender construction
approaches to child care:
couple prefers that the wife care for kids
approaches to child care:
family care is shared by parents
approaches to child care:
career oriented couples hure other people to care for children
suggests that one spouse's househild labor is a consequence of her or his resources compared to those of the other
resource hypothesis
3 aspects of a lasting intimate relationship
(past, present, future)
1. self-disclosure/shared history (past)
2. caring (present)
3. commitment (future)
formula for good communication
leveling + active listening = good communication
when nonverbals & verbals contradict, we usually tune into ____.
4 common ways families end conflict:
1. submission
2. compromise
3. standoff
4. withdrawal
5 types of friends:
1. convenience
2. doing-things
3. milestone
4. mentor
5. close
number one reason for divorce
most important indicator that a couple has become a 'solidified unit'
decide to pool their finances
8 steps to successful money management
1. recognize problems
2. decide on management system
3. set up rules for financial discussion
4. establish goals
5. record keeping
6. analyze expenditures
7. budgeting
8. revise as necessary
financial problems are usually behavior problems rather than...
money problems
what is worth the relationship
we know the price of everything & the...
value of nothing
does better for parenting than parenting edu.
marriage education
"i am rewarded every so often"
begins in infancy & becomes addiction for kids
slot-machine effect
age kids tend to return to most of the values of their parents
age 25
foundation of personality development
the sense of connection with people
the response to helplessness, the violation of bodily integrity, & the indignity suffered in the eyes of another person
an attempt to draw some useful lesson from disaster & to regain some sense of power & control
the most powerfuk determinant of psychological harm is the character of the
tramatic evemnt itself
year of the highest divorce rates ever
with severe enough tramatitc exposure,
no person is immune
perception of one's ability to control their destiny
internal locus of control
worst type of abuse
3 features pronounced in families of suicidal members
1. guilt
2. identification
3. information
leading PREVENTABLE cause of infertility; leading cause of infertility
STD's; unknown
4 social factors encouraging to postpone marriage
1. changes in economy make early marriage less attractive
2. improved contraception
3. sex ratio
4. greater weight to personal autonomy
a more important determinant of the nature of couple relationships than is sexual orienatation
benefits of living alone
-less irritation
-higher self-esteem
-greater sense of control over their lives
the number of births typical woman will have in her lifetime; has dropped sharply
total fertility rate
the view that having children is taken for granted, whereas not having children seems to need a justification
pronatalist bias
insufficiently supportive of parents & children
structural antinatalism
benefits of parenthood
social capital perspective
the costs of having children
-add tension to the household
-limit parent's spontaneity
-work of parenting
advantages of only children
-higher edu. expectations from parents
-more likely to know their child's friends
-more money saved for college
disadvantages of only children
-no experience with sibling relationships
-extra pressure from parents
-no help in caring for parents
-only chance for parents to prove themselves fit
proportion of nonmarital births among african american women remains high because..
-length of time in marriage has shortened
-fertility has declined more among married
fewer infants are available for adoption because..
-effective contraception
-legalized abortion
-white unmarried women more likely to keep their babies now
defensively shutting off the willingness or ability to make future attachments to anyone
attachment disorder
after 5 days..
called glasstissis
after 2 weeks..
embryo is enlongated
after 4 weeks..
embryo has arm buds
after 5 weeks..
nose forms
after 6 weeks..
leg buds form, spine visible
after 7 weeks..
-3/4 inches long
-has fingers
-can move hands
-internal organs visible
-eyelids form
-skull bones form
after 8 weeks..
fingers well developed
after 10 weeks..
-embryo now considered fetus
-2 inches long
-still has tail
after 11 weeks..
2.5 in. long
after 12 weeks..
-3 in. long
-umbilical cord
after 14 weeks..
can bring hands together
after 15 weeks..
sensory organs almost fully formed
after 16 weeks..
actively turning in uterus
90% of brain growth happens in the first 3 years through..
the zygote moves down to the uterus, where it embeds itdelf in the thickened lining, or endometrium
the first 2 weeks of pregnancy
germinal period
first signs of pregnancy
-cessation of menstration
-changes in size &fullness of breasts
-darkened areolas
-frequency of urination
lasts from second until about the eighth week
embryonic stage
-amniotic fluid surrounds the fetus
-placenta develops
embryonic stage
lasts from about eight weeks until birth
fetal stage
development of a pregnancy into a full-term baby
sound waves are bounced off the abdomen of the pregnant women to determine the shape & position of the fetus
pros of ultrasound
-helps predict the date of birth within two weeks
-can detect twins 90% of the time
-shows whether the fetus is developing right
-reveals birth defects
provides more info. to parents about their risk of having a child with a birth defects
amniocentesis & other prenatal testing
a physician inserts a needle into uterus, withdraws some amniotic fluid
can provide info earlier in pregnancy by tetsing tissue from the fetal membrane
chrionic villus sampling (CVS)
process by which the baby is propelled from the mother's body through a series of contractions of the muscles of the uterus
stages of labor
-cervix dialates
-expilsion of bloody plug
-water breaks
stage that extends from the time the cervix is completely dialated until the fetus is expelled
the expulsion of the placenta, teh amniotic sac, & the remainder of the umbilical cord
contributed to decrease in infant & maternal death during childbirth
-greater access to prenatal care
-hospital delivery
-doctor's assistance in childbirth