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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
consumer behavior
Processes a consumer uses to make purchase decisions, as well as to use and dispose of purchased goods or services; also includes factors that influence purchase decisions and product use.
consumer decision-making process
A five-step process used by consumers when buying goods or services.
need recognition
Result of an imbalance between actual and desired states.
Any unit of input affecting one or more of the five senses: sight, smell, taste, touch, hearing.
Recognition of an unfulfilled need and a product that will satisfy it.
internal information search
The process of recalling past information stored in the memory.
external information search
The process of seeking information in the outside enviroment
nonmarketing-controlled information source
A product information source that is not associated with advertising or promotion
marketing-controlled information source
A product information source that originates with marketers promoting the products
evoked set (consideration set)
A group of brands, resulting from an information search, from which a buyer can choose.
cognitive dissonance
Inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values or opinions.
The amount of time and effort a buyer invests in the search, evaluation, and decision processes of consumer behavior.
routine response behavior
The type of decision making exhibited by consumers buying frequently purchased, low-cost goods and services; requires little search and decision time.
limited decision making
The type of decsion making that requires a moderate amount of time for gathering information and deliberating about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category.
extensive decision making
The most complex type of consumer decision making, used when buying an unfamiliar, expensive product or an infrequently bought item; requires use of several criteria for evaluating options and much time for seeking information
The set of values, norms, attitudes, and other meaningful symbols that shape human behavior and the artifacts, or products, of that behavior as they are transmitted from one generation to the next.
The enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to another mode of conduct.
A homogeneous group of people who share elements of the overall culture as well as unique elements of their own group
social class
A group of people in a society who are considered nearly equal in status or community esteem, who regularly socialize among themselves both formally and informally, and who share behavioral norms.
reference group
A group in society that influences an individual's purchasing behavior
primary membership group
A reference group with which people interact regularly in an informal, face-to-face manner, such as family, friends, or fellow employees.
secondary membership group
A reference group with which people who associate less consistently and more formally than a primary membership group, such as a club, professional group, or religious group
aspirational reference group
A group that someone would like to join.
A value or attitude deemed acceptable by a group
non aspirational reference group
A group with which an individual does not want to associate
opinion leader
An individual who influences the opinions of others.
socialization process
How cultural values and norms are passed down to children
A way of organizing and grouping the consistencies of an individual's reactions to situations.
How consumers perceive themselves in terms of attitudes, perceptions, beliefs, and self-evalutations
ideal self-image
The way an individual would like to be.
real self-image
The way an person actually perceives himself or herself.
A mode of living as identified by a person's activities, interests, and opinions.
The process by which people select organize, and interpret stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture.
selective exposure
The process whereby a consumer changes or distorts information that conflicts with his or her feelings or beliefs.
selective retention
A process whereby a consumer remembers only that information that supports his or her personal beliefs.
A driving force that causes a person to take action to satisfy specific needs.
A process that creates changes in behavior, immediate or expected, through experience and practice.
stimulus generalization
A form of learning that occurs when one response is extended to a second stimulus similar to the first.
stimulus discrimination
A learned ability to differentiate among similar products
An organized pattern of knowledge that an individual holds as true about his or her world.
A learned tendency to respond consistently toward a given object.
business marketing
The marketing of goods and services to individuals and organizations for purposes other than personal consumption.
strategic alliance
A cooperative agreement between business firms.
A network of interlocking corporate affiliates.
original equipment manufacturers (OEMs)
Persons and organizations that buy business goods and incorporate them into the products that they produce for eventual sale to other producers or to consumers.
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
A detailed numbering system developed by the US, Canada, and Mexico to classify North American business establishments by their main production processes.
derived demand
The demand for business products
joint demand
The demand for two or more items used together in a final product
multiplier effect (accelerator principle)
Phenomenon in which a small increase or decrease in consumer demand can produce a much larger changed in demand for the facilities and equipment needed to make the consumer product.
A practice where business purchasers choose to buy from their won customers.
major equipment (installations)
Capital goods such as large or expensive machines, mainframe computers, blast furnaces, generators, airplanes, and buildings
accessory equipment
Goods, such as portable tools and office equipment, that are less expensive and shorter-lived than major equipment.
raw materials
Unprocessed extractive or agricultural products, such as mineral ore, lumber, wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables, and fish
component parts
Either finished items ready for assembly or products that need very little processing before becoming part of some product.
processed materials
Products used directly in manufacturing other products
Consumable items that do not become part of the final product.
business services
Expense items that do not become part of a final product.
buying center
All those persons in a organization who become involved in the purchase decision.
new buy
A situation requiring the purchase of a product for the first time
modified rebuy
A situation where the purchaser wants some change in the original good or service.
straight rebuy
A situation in which the purchaser reorders the same goods or services without looking for new information or investigating other suppliers.
Segmentation bases
Characteristics of individuals, groups, or organizations
geographic segmentation
Segmenting markets by region of a country or the world, market size, market density, or climate
demographic segmentation
Segmenting markets by age, gender, income, ethnic background, and family life cycle
family life cycle (FLC)
A series of stages determined by a combination of age, marital status, and the presence or absence of children.
psychographic segmentation
Market segmentation on the basis of personality, motives, lifestyles, and geodemographics
geodemographic segmentation
Segmenting potential customers into neighborhood lifestyle categories.
benefit segmentation
The process of grouping customers into market segments according to the benefits they seek from the product.
Usage-rate segmentation
Dividing a market by the amount of product bought or consumed
80/20 principle
A principle holding that 20 percent of all customers generate 80 percent of the demand.
Business customers who place an order with the first familiar supplier to satisfy product and delivery requirements.
Business customers who consider numerous suppliers, both familiar and unfamiliar, solicit bids, and study all proposals carefully before selecting one.
one segment of a market.
Developing a specific marketing mix to influence potential customers' overall perception of a brand, product line, or org in general
The place a product occupies in consumers' minds relative to competing offerings.
product differentiation
A position strategy that some firms use to distinguish their products from those of competitors.
perceptual mapping
A means of displaying or graphing, in two or more dimensions, the location of products, brands, or groups of products in customers' minds.
Changing consumers' perceptions of a brand in relation to competing brands