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38 Cards in this Set
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5 Types of Statistical analysis:

Descriptive
Inferential Group Differences Associative Predictive 
____ analysis is used for data reduction
Used to describe the variables (question responses) in a data matrix (all respondents's answers) 
Descriptive

____ analysis is used to generate conclusions about the population's characteristics based on the sample data

Inferential

____ anaylsis is used to compare the mean of responses of one group to that of another group, such as satisfaction ratings for "heavy" users vs "light users"

Differences

____ analysis determines the strength and direction of relationships between two or more varioables (questions in the survey)

Associative

___ analysis allows on to make forcasts of future events

Predictive

3 measures of Central Tendency:

Mean  arithmetric average of a set of numbers
Median  value whose occurance lies in the middle Mode  # that appears most often 
____ are not central tendency values; extreme scores in a data set. These only affect the ____

Outliers
Mean 
Disperson is measures of ___: (3)

variability
1. Range  Max and Min in a set of numbers 2. SD  degree of variation 3. Frequency  # of occurances of each # in a set 
Research is both ___ and ___ in nature. Concerned with devloping and testing ___

Theoretical and Emperical
Hypothesises 
___ refers to laws and rules that pertain to the genereal case, whereas, ____ research is individual specific

Nomothetic
Idiographic 
Probablistic  100% certainty is regarded as ____

Unattainable

Steps in scientific progress: (5)

Posting of conecptual hypothesis
Deduction of specific study hypothesis Design of study and collection of data Analysis of data and conclusions about the study hypotheses Modification of the conecptual hypotheses if necessary 
As we report our hypothesis testing results, we report ___ of our hypothesis being ___

probabilities
correct 
___ ___ is the degree to which the conclusions in your study would hold for other persons in other places and at other times

external validity

___ hypothesis is the possibility that an observed effect is genuine and the ___ hypothesis is the rival possibility that it has resulted from random chance.

Alternative
Null 
Which two tests are used for group comparisons?
Null hypothesis? 
TTest and ANOVA
Group difference does not exist 
For group comparisons (ttest and ANOVA) if the p<.05, then group difference _ exist

Do

Which two tests are used for Associations between variables?
Null hypoth? 
(correlation and Chisquare tests)
Association between variables does not exist 
If P<.05 then association between variables ___ exist

do

Regression Analysis:
Null? 
Independent variables are not significant predictors

Type ___ error: mistakenly accepting hypothesis when you shouldn't
Solution? 
Type 1 error
Sol = Set p value low enough 
Type __ error: mistakenly accepting null hypothesis when you shouldn't
Solution? 
Type 2 error
Sol = Increase Sample 
Important caveat: The probability estimates do not take into consideration ___ ___ which is an additional source of error.

Internal validity.

Statistics allow us to ___ uncertainty

Quantify

___ ___ is a systematic and objective approach to determine "approximate truths"

Advanced Ststistics

___ ___ is a set of procedures in which the sample size and sample statistic is used to make an estimate of the corresponding population parameter.

Statistical Inference

Values that are computer from information provided by a sample are referred to as the sample's _____, wheras values that are computed from a complete census, which are considered to precise and valid measures of the population are called ____

Statistics
Parameters 
___ ___  stats/values you would obtain if you were able to sample the entire population

Population Parameters

Standard error is derived by dividing the ___ by the square root of the __ ___

SD
Sample Size 
____ refers to the process of dividing the total market for a particular product or product category into relatively homogeneous segments or groups

Segmentation

"Homogeneous within, heterogeneous between" menas:

Groups should consist of members that are similar to each other but dissimilar to other groups

TTests:
One Sample TTest: Independent Sample Test: Paired Sample Test: 
Comparing sample mean to another sample's mean
Comparing subsample means within your sample Comparing two variable means within your sample 
ANOVA is for...

testing 3 or more subgroups within a sample.

For both ttest and ANOVA, SPSS output shows pvalue, which corresponds to the % chance that mean difference is ___ significant
Rule of thumb: 
NOT
If p<.05 then reject the null hypotesis. = mean difference IS significant 
____ is a consistent and systematic linkage between variables

Relationship

A ___ relationship means two variables are associated but only in a very general sense.
test? 
Nonmonotonic relationship
Chisquare  2 nominal variables 
A ____ relationship means you know the general direction of the relationship between two variables
test? 
Monotonic relationship
Correlation test  2 interval or ratio scales 