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38 Cards in this Set

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5 Types of Statistical analysis:
Descriptive
Inferential
Group Differences
Associative
Predictive
____ analysis is used for data reduction
Used to describe the variables (question responses) in a data matrix (all respondents's answers)
Descriptive
____ analysis is used to generate conclusions about the population's characteristics based on the sample data
Inferential
____ anaylsis is used to compare the mean of responses of one group to that of another group, such as satisfaction ratings for "heavy" users vs "light users"
Differences
____ analysis determines the strength and direction of relationships between two or more varioables (questions in the survey)
Associative
___ analysis allows on to make forcasts of future events
Predictive
3 measures of Central Tendency:
Mean - arithmetric average of a set of numbers

Median - value whose occurance lies in the middle

Mode - # that appears most often
____ are not central tendency values; extreme scores in a data set. These only affect the ____
Outliers

Mean
Disperson is measures of ___: (3)
variability

1. Range - Max and Min in a set of numbers

2. SD - degree of variation

3. Frequency - # of occurances of each # in a set
Research is both ___ and ___ in nature. Concerned with devloping and testing ___
Theoretical and Emperical

Hypothesises
___ refers to laws and rules that pertain to the genereal case, whereas, ____ research is individual specific
Nomothetic

Idiographic
Probablistic - 100% certainty is regarded as ____
Unattainable
Steps in scientific progress: (5)
Posting of conecptual hypothesis

Deduction of specific study hypothesis

Design of study and collection of data

Analysis of data and conclusions about the study hypotheses

Modification of the conecptual hypotheses if necessary
As we report our hypothesis testing results, we report ___ of our hypothesis being ___
probabilities

correct
___ ___ is the degree to which the conclusions in your study would hold for other persons in other places and at other times
external validity
___ hypothesis is the possibility that an observed effect is genuine and the ___ hypothesis is the rival possibility that it has resulted from random chance.
Alternative

Null
Which two tests are used for group comparisons?

Null hypothesis?
T-Test and ANOVA

Group difference does not exist
For group comparisons (t-test and ANOVA) if the p<.05, then group difference _ exist
Do
Which two tests are used for Associations between variables?

Null hypoth?
(correlation and Chi-square tests)

Association between variables does not exist
If P<.05 then association between variables ___ exist
do
Regression Analysis:

Null?
Independent variables are not significant predictors
Type ___ error: mistakenly accepting hypothesis when you shouldn't

Solution?
Type 1 error

Sol = Set p value low enough
Type __ error: mistakenly accepting null hypothesis when you shouldn't

Solution?
Type 2 error

Sol = Increase Sample
Important caveat: The probability estimates do not take into consideration ___ ___ which is an additional source of error.
Internal validity.
Statistics allow us to ___ uncertainty
Quantify
___ ___ is a systematic and objective approach to determine "approximate truths"
Advanced Ststistics
___ ___ is a set of procedures in which the sample size and sample statistic is used to make an estimate of the corresponding population parameter.
Statistical Inference
Values that are computer from information provided by a sample are referred to as the sample's _____, wheras values that are computed from a complete census, which are considered to precise and valid measures of the population are called ____
Statistics

Parameters
___ ___ - stats/values you would obtain if you were able to sample the entire population
Population Parameters
Standard error is derived by dividing the ___ by the square root of the __ ___
SD

Sample Size
____ refers to the process of dividing the total market for a particular product or product category into relatively homogeneous segments or groups
Segmentation
"Homogeneous within, heterogeneous between" menas:
Groups should consist of members that are similar to each other but dissimilar to other groups
T-Tests:
One Sample T-Test:
Independent Sample Test:
Paired Sample Test:
Comparing sample mean to another sample's mean

Comparing sub-sample means within your sample

Comparing two variable means within your sample
ANOVA is for...
testing 3 or more subgroups within a sample.
For both t-test and ANOVA, SPSS output shows p-value, which corresponds to the % chance that mean difference is ___ significant

Rule of thumb:
NOT

If p<.05 then reject the null hypotesis. = mean difference IS significant
____ is a consistent and systematic linkage between variables
Relationship
A ___ relationship means two variables are associated but only in a very general sense.

test?
Nonmonotonic relationship

Chi-square - 2 nominal variables
A ____ relationship means you know the general direction of the relationship between two variables

test?
Monotonic relationship

Correlation test - 2 interval or ratio scales