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### 38 Cards in this Set

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 5 Types of Statistical analysis: Descriptive Inferential Group Differences Associative Predictive ____ analysis is used for data reduction Used to describe the variables (question responses) in a data matrix (all respondents's answers) Descriptive ____ analysis is used to generate conclusions about the population's characteristics based on the sample data Inferential ____ anaylsis is used to compare the mean of responses of one group to that of another group, such as satisfaction ratings for "heavy" users vs "light users" Differences ____ analysis determines the strength and direction of relationships between two or more varioables (questions in the survey) Associative ___ analysis allows on to make forcasts of future events Predictive 3 measures of Central Tendency: Mean - arithmetric average of a set of numbers Median - value whose occurance lies in the middle Mode - # that appears most often ____ are not central tendency values; extreme scores in a data set. These only affect the ____ Outliers Mean Disperson is measures of ___: (3) variability 1. Range - Max and Min in a set of numbers 2. SD - degree of variation 3. Frequency - # of occurances of each # in a set Research is both ___ and ___ in nature. Concerned with devloping and testing ___ Theoretical and Emperical Hypothesises ___ refers to laws and rules that pertain to the genereal case, whereas, ____ research is individual specific Nomothetic Idiographic Probablistic - 100% certainty is regarded as ____ Unattainable Steps in scientific progress: (5) Posting of conecptual hypothesis Deduction of specific study hypothesis Design of study and collection of data Analysis of data and conclusions about the study hypotheses Modification of the conecptual hypotheses if necessary As we report our hypothesis testing results, we report ___ of our hypothesis being ___ probabilities correct ___ ___ is the degree to which the conclusions in your study would hold for other persons in other places and at other times external validity ___ hypothesis is the possibility that an observed effect is genuine and the ___ hypothesis is the rival possibility that it has resulted from random chance. Alternative Null Which two tests are used for group comparisons? Null hypothesis? T-Test and ANOVA Group difference does not exist For group comparisons (t-test and ANOVA) if the p<.05, then group difference _ exist Do Which two tests are used for Associations between variables? Null hypoth? (correlation and Chi-square tests) Association between variables does not exist If P<.05 then association between variables ___ exist do Regression Analysis: Null? Independent variables are not significant predictors Type ___ error: mistakenly accepting hypothesis when you shouldn't Solution? Type 1 error Sol = Set p value low enough Type __ error: mistakenly accepting null hypothesis when you shouldn't Solution? Type 2 error Sol = Increase Sample Important caveat: The probability estimates do not take into consideration ___ ___ which is an additional source of error. Internal validity. Statistics allow us to ___ uncertainty Quantify ___ ___ is a systematic and objective approach to determine "approximate truths" Advanced Ststistics ___ ___ is a set of procedures in which the sample size and sample statistic is used to make an estimate of the corresponding population parameter. Statistical Inference Values that are computer from information provided by a sample are referred to as the sample's _____, wheras values that are computed from a complete census, which are considered to precise and valid measures of the population are called ____ Statistics Parameters ___ ___ - stats/values you would obtain if you were able to sample the entire population Population Parameters Standard error is derived by dividing the ___ by the square root of the __ ___ SD Sample Size ____ refers to the process of dividing the total market for a particular product or product category into relatively homogeneous segments or groups Segmentation "Homogeneous within, heterogeneous between" menas: Groups should consist of members that are similar to each other but dissimilar to other groups T-Tests: One Sample T-Test: Independent Sample Test: Paired Sample Test: Comparing sample mean to another sample's mean Comparing sub-sample means within your sample Comparing two variable means within your sample ANOVA is for... testing 3 or more subgroups within a sample. For both t-test and ANOVA, SPSS output shows p-value, which corresponds to the % chance that mean difference is ___ significant Rule of thumb: NOT If p<.05 then reject the null hypotesis. = mean difference IS significant ____ is a consistent and systematic linkage between variables Relationship A ___ relationship means two variables are associated but only in a very general sense. test? Nonmonotonic relationship Chi-square - 2 nominal variables A ____ relationship means you know the general direction of the relationship between two variables test? Monotonic relationship Correlation test - 2 interval or ratio scales