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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Marketing Research Process
1. Problem Definition
2. Development of an approach to problem
3. Research design formulation
4. Fieldwork/data collection
5. Data Prep/Analysis
6. Report Prep/Presentation
Research Designs
1. Exploratory (Focus groups)
2. Descriptive (Surveys)
3. Causal (experiments)
Sources of Error
1. Random Sampling
2. Non Sampling
By researcher
By Interviewer
By Respondent
Extraneous Variables
1. History
2. Maturation
3. Testing
4. Instrumentation
5. Statistical Regression
6. Mortality
Control Measures
1. Randomization
2. Statistical Control (ANCOVA)
3. Design Control (Blocking)
Non Probability Approaches
1. Snowball referrals
2. Convenience
3. Judgmental
4. Quota/Ratio
Sample Size Determination
1. Classical
2. Bayesian/Sequential
-Test retest reliability

-Alternate Forms reliability

-Internal consistency of measure
-Face Validity


-Construct Validity
Overcoming Unwillingness
-Placing at end
-Counter biasing Statement
-Bury it
-Third Party
-Randomized Response Technique
Improving Response Rate
Exploratory Research Design
Focus Groups
Depth Interviews
Mystery shoppers
Focus Groups
-8-12 people
-opposing groups

-Rich Data Set
-Non Verbals

-Hard to analyze/summarize
-Poor representation
-Reliability of findings
Depth Interviews
-15 min to 1 hr

-More control
-Non Verbals

-Hard to analyze/summarize
-Poor representation
-Reliability of findings
Projective Techniques
-Quantitatively oriented
-Expressive Techniques
Physiological Measures
Mystery Shoppers
-Good External Validity
Survey Methods
-Personal Interview
-Trace Analysis
-Content Analysis
-Market Audits
Causal Research
1. Covariation
2. Time order of occurance
3. No alternative explaination
Experiment v. pseudo experiment
1. Dependent/criterion variable
2. Predictor (cause)
3. Treatment and Control Groups
4. Randomization
5. Before and after measures
Categories of Experiments
-strong internal validity
-weak external validity

-weak internal validity
-strong external validity
Cross Sectional Design
Type of descriptive research that involves the collection of information from any given sample of the population only once
Cohort Analysis
Type of multiple cross sectional design consisting of a series of surveys conducted at appropriate time intervals.
group of respondents who experience the same event within the same interval
Longitidunal Design
Type of research design involving a fixed sample of population elements that is measured repeatedly on the same variables

Provides a series of pictures that portray a vivid illustration of the situation and changes that are taking place over time
Simple Random Sampling
All elements have an equal chance of selection
Systematic Random Sample
1 in k sampling
Stratified Random Sampling
Includes all important subpopulations, precise

Good Strata: Homogeneous within, Heterogeneous between
Cluster Sampling
Cost efficient, easy to implement

Good Cluster: Heterogeneous within, Homogeneous between
Bayesian/Sequential sample size determination
Draw info and test. When pattern develops, stop.
Ratio Level Data
-zero has absolute meaning
-Things talked about in proportion
Interval Level Data
-Consistent interval between each of the points on the continuum
Rank order (ordinal) data
-Items ranked
Nominal/Categorical Data
# associated with stimulus identifies it
Test-retest reliability
ability to do the same thing twice
Alternate forms reliability
asking the same thing in different ways
Internal consistancy of measure
defined for multi item measure
Chronbach's Alpha (coefficient alpha)
Average inter item correlation

>0.7 demonstrates evidence of internal consistency
Face Validity
Do the items appear to make sense
Criterion (predictive)
degree to which measure predicts related behavior/attitudes
Construct Validity
addresses the question of what construct/characteristic the scales in measuring