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40 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 primary scales of measurement?
Nominal, Ratio, Interval, ordinal
What is a nominal scale?
uses numbers as labels for classifying objects. I.e. social security numbers, gender, or football jersey numbers. Mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. Find mode (nonmetric scale)
What is an ordinal scale?
Determines rank but not the differences between the ranks. I.e. preference ranking. Find median (nonmetric scale)
What is an interval scale?
Differences between objects can be compared. I.e. attitudes, opinions, index numbers. Find range, mean, stan. dev. (metric scale)
What is a ratio scale?
zero point is fixed and values can be computed. I.e. age, income, sales. Find geometric mean. (metric scale)
See page 247 for comparative scale examples
See page 247 for comparative scale examples
what is a continuous rating scale?
place a mark on a continuous line. i.e. reaction to a TV commercial
What are the itemized rating scales?
likert, semantic differential, and stapel scale.
What is a likert scale?
Degree of agreement on a 1(strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) scale. i.e. measure attitude
What is a semantic differential scale?
seven point scale with bipolar labels. i.e. brand, product, company images
What is a stapel scale?
unipolar 10 point scale. -5 to +5 without a zero. I.e. measure attitude and images.
Examples of these scales starting on 262
Examples of these scales starting on 262
What are the decision factors for itemized rating scales?
number of categories, balanced vs. unbalanced, odd vs. even # of categories, forced vs. nonforced, verbal description, physical form
what are the guidelines for # of categories?
should be b/w 5 - 9 categories
what are the guidelines for balanced v. unbalanced
scale should be balanced
what is the guideline for odd v. even # of categories?
odd is suggested if a a respondents' answers can be neutral
what is the guideline for forced v. nonforced?
no opinion - then nonforced
what is the guideline for verbal description?
label all or many of the scale categories
what is the guideline for physical form?
try several options and select best
What is an unstructured question?
open-ended question that is best used as 1st questions
What are some aspects of structured question?
Multiple choice, dichotomous (2 choices), and a scale. Easy to code and analyze
How do you determine the wording of questions?
define the issue, use simple words, use unambiguous words, avoiding leading
What is a sampling frame?
representation of the elements of the target population. List of directions for identifying the target population
What are the elements of selecting a sample technique?
non probability sampling and probability sampling.
What is non probability sampling?
relies on judgment of the researcher rather than chance with selection procdeure
What is probability sampling?
each element of the population has a fixed chance of being selected
How do you code open-ended answers?
similar responses are grouped and category codes are developed
What are the options for missing responses?
substitute a neutral value, casewise deletion, pairwise deletion
What is casewise deletion?
respondents with missing responses are discarded from analysis. i.e. 20% did not answer income, all will be excluded from income analysis
What is pairwise deletion?
still keep some of the responses that will help other areas, not omitted totally like casewise.
What are the steps to hypothesis testing?
1. formulate null and alternative
2. select appropriate test
3. collect date and test statistic
4. Reject or do not reject the null
5. Draw marketing conclusion

pg.439!!!
What is cross tabulation?
describes 2 or more categories simultaneously where the categories of 1 variable are cross classified with the categories of one more other variables.
What is chi-square?
Determines the statistical significance in a cross tabulation. Does an association exist between the variables.
hypothesis testing related to association?
values of homes are related to buyer's income
hypothesis testing related to differences?
people living in the suburbs have higher income than people living downtown
When is it appropriate to use a t-test?
used when standard deviation is unknown and sample is small. Can be conducted on the means of one or two samples of observations. WE USE INDEPENDENT T TESTS
When is it appropriate to use a f-test?
when it is not known whether the 2 populations have equal variances.
ANOVA?
examine the differences among means of 2 or more populations
Roles of dependent and independent variables in ANOVA?
Must have a metric dependent variable. Also one or more independent variables that are nonmetric.
What is the pearson correlation?
denoted by r, summarizes the strength and direction of association between 2 metric variables. Determine whether a linear or straight line relationship exists between X & Y