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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three types of Research Design?
Exploratory, Descriptive, Causal
Research Objective: To gain background information, clarify problems and hypotheses.

- Unstructured
To describe and measure marketing phenomena at a point in time
To determine causality (if-then statements)

-Secondary data analysis
-Case analysis
-Focus Groups
Exploratory research methods
measure units from a sample of the population at only one point in time
(furniture survey)
cross-sectional descriptive
repeatedly measure the same sample units of a population over time
(sexual abuse survey)
longitudinal studies
use data to gain insights into changes in consumers' purchases, attitudes, etc.
continuous panels
ask panel members the same questions on each panel measurement
continuous panels
variable that the researcher has complete control over
observing behavior as it occurs
direct observation
observing the effects of results of the behavior rather than the behavior itself
indirect observation
subject is unaware that they are being observed
disguised observation
repondent is aware of the observation
undisguised observation
researcher identifies beforehand which behaviors are to be observed and recorded
structured observation
no restriction is places on what the observer would note: all behavior is monitored
unstructured observation
-small group of people
-spontaneous discussion
-generate ideas and basic needs
focus group
6-12 people
60-90 minutes
size of focus group
strangers who share homogenous characteristics
who should be included in a focus group
-generate fresh ideas
-allow clients to observe their participants
-easy access to special respondent groups
- directed at understanding a wide variety of issues
pros of focus groups
-Representativesness of participants
-interpretation sometimes difficult
Possible errors of focus groups
Should not be used when the reasearch objective is to predict a specific number based upon sample data
when should you not use a focus group
participants are placed in simulated activities in the hopes taht they will divulge things about themselves that they might not reveal under direct questioning
ex: word association, role playing, etc.
Projective technique
set of probing questions posed one-on-one to a subject to gain an idea of what the subject thinks about something or why they behave a certain way
depth interveiw
placing a person ion a decision-making situation and asking him or her to verbalize everything they consider when making a decision
protocol analysis
descriptive study of a group
ethnographic research
monitoring a respondent's involuntary responses to marketing stimuli via the use of electrodes and equipment
physiological measurments
Physically verifiable property
mental construct
subjective property
Description, order, distance
three types of scale descriptors
the use of a label to stand for each unit on the scale
ex: male, female
relative sizes of hte descriptors are known allowing us to say one is greater/less than the other
differences between the descriptors are known
ex: $1 difference between $4 and $5
Nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
levels of measurement of scale
those that only use labels
those with which the researcher can rank-order the respondnets or responses
those in which the distance between each descriptor is equal
ones in which a true zero exists
-most descriptive, exact numbers
asked how much you agree or disagree
likert scale
value and personality traits of people as reflected in thier unique activities, ect.
life-style inventory
series of bipolar adjectives with the purpose of measuring brand evaluation
semantiv differential scale
respondent responds in the same or similar manner to an identical measure
accuracy of responses to a meausure
only perfectly accurate sample
probability sample will always have some
calculated and expressed as a %
probablility sample accuracy and error can be
representativeness and accuracy
sampling errors
Two bigs factors in determining sample size
cost, desired accuracy
Central tendency, variability
two sets of descriptive measures
most common response to a question
central tendency
used to reveal how similar the responses are
mean, median (middle) and mode(most frequent)
measures of central tendency
frequency and percentage distribution, range(max min), standard deviation (degree of variative in bell shape)
measures of variablity
making a generalization about an entire class based upon observation
stats are used to make estimates of population
statistical inference
parameter estimation, hypotheses testing, tests of sifnificant differences
three types of stat inference
using sample info to compute an interval that describes tha range of values a the population would take on
parameter estimation