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200 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mgmt- manage organization

Mktg- manage market
Status quo of mktg
Identify, understand then satisfy customer needs
3 factors stifling full implementation of mktg
1. Market not fully deregulated
2. Mktg perceived as an area of management discipline
3. Mktg fails to speak language of boardroom
Diff btwn MKTG orientation and MARKET orientation
Mktg- Design/produce product w/o consulting mktg

MARKET*- Coordinate mktg info into design/production of product
Week 1 pg 4
Implication of customer orientation
Take on perspective of customer + internal knowledge of firm's staff.

to be innovative in a business model/product sense.
How does a customer orientation view define the other 3 P's? (Place, Price, Promotion)
Place- convenient & easy access to a solution

Price- Total cost customer is WTP

Promotion- communication of the solution
Implication of competitor orientation
Take on perspective of competitor (pretend) & enter competitor's premises
Implication of a collaborator orientation
Take on supplier's perspective to evaluate basis of r'ship: trading regulations, pricing contracts, loyalty
Firms should run from 'outside-in' or 'inside-out' perspective?
OUTSIDE-IN (1 extreme to another)
What drives corporate value?
THE MARKET (customer needs)
What must marketing do to maximise corporate value?
Recognise then LINK marketing decisions to the true indicators of corporate value.
Indicator of corporate value is...
CASH FLOW (not profits!)
Qualities of cash flow
- calculable metric of mktg strategies' impact
- NPV of cash flow
Why discounted future cash flow?
To compare cash flow expectations on same grounds b/c discounting cash flow brings 2 different future expectations back to present day.
Where is discounted cash flow reflected?
Stock Xchange:
SHARE PRICE = market's expression of firm's expected cash flow
Why not focus on traditional acct measures? (i.e. profits)
- Profits does NOT reflect firm's value (share price)

- Acct = rear-view mirror (reflection of past) but mktg needs a forward-viewing measure!
HOW does marketing link itself to indicators? (how to create shareholder value?)
1. Shift business towards MOST ATTRACTIVE market

2. To build a sustainable competitive advantage in those markets
Basic principle of Shareholder Value Analysis (SVA)?
** Cash flow analysis **
- more valuable the firm, greater the capital gains for and dividends paid out to shareholders
4 factors that affect cash flow
1. Level (want high)
2. Timing (want early)
3. Sustainability
4. Risk
What influences LEVEL of cash flow
Product development
- Add/change parts of product to satisfy customers
What influences TIMING of cash flow
WHEN modified/new products are introduced to market
- network effects: Apple product ecosystem (new generations, apps)
What influences SUSTAINABILITY of cash flow
LOYALTY of customers
What influences RISKINESS of cash flow
Level of customer satisfaction
- more satisfied, more stability
What is cash flow, exactly?
Operating inflows - operating outflows

earnings less the amount reinvested in business
Central concept of financial performance
Decisions yielding cash flow to be greater than cost of capital will create shareholder value (and vice versa)
Fundamentals of shifting business towards attractive markets (2)
1. View markets DYNAMICALLY, not statically.

2. Determine which customers to serve.
Implications of dynamic market view (3)
Today's & tomorrow's business, and market options

- invest generously in future!
- be cautious about other market options
Implications of customer selection
Firm cannot desire ALL customers, must focus on those that are:

Definition of sustainable competitive advantage
A value proposition that matches the needs of customers in the long term
A value proposition explains to customers why... (2)
- they should buy from your firm
- they should remain loyal to firm
Must firms be competent in delivering ALL types of competitive advantage?
NO. must focus on 1 and sustain firm's capability in t hat competitive advantage.
What is a brand?
A strategic market position
2 components of a brand
1. Awareness
2. Image
What is brand equity?
Value of the strategic market position: how much people would pay to buy brand of company.
What drives brand equity?
brand knowledge level
Depiction of how brand knowledge level is raised in simple web
week 3, pg. 18
Awareness of brand is developed through...(2)
Depth and breadth
Image of brand must have 3 attributes
What drives brand knowledge level and its components?
1. Capability of firm to develop a brand identity
2. Capability to communicate that identity to the market
Process of how the brand organizes marketing behavior
capability --> BRAND --> knowledge
Brand articulates itself through the 4....
4 P's!
The 4 P's is the medium in which translates...
the firm's capability into consumer's knowledge of the brand
Which 'P' is the most important aspect of the brand?
Product: the brand that good products create can sustain for the long run
What are the most important brand benefits? (2)
Negotiate risks (quality & time)
Provide comfort (reliability, durability, quality)
4 risk categories that brands can provide comfort for
1. Quality risk
2. Time risk
3. Identity risk (can I define who I am with this brand?)
4. Trust risk
Brand benefits to seller
1. Less legal risk: brand brings security and protection
2. Less demand risk: customers will stay loyal, bring in stable sales
Why do firms need a marketing plan?
So entire organization has a mutual and concrete understanding of its strategic objective
How can a mktg plan be defined?
A strategic document
Mktg plan focuses on.. (5)
1. Firm's mission (what business are we in?)
2. Targeted markets/segments
3. Position strategy for these market segments
5. Strengths/weaknesses of firm
What is the UNIT of analysis for a mktg plan?
The products under the brand
3 objections to using a mktg plan
1. Lack of needed info.
2. Environments are too turbulent for forecasting
3. Too much rigid limits in planning
2 principle sections in a mktg plan
What is regarded in the AUDIT section?
SWOT analysis
What is regarded in the ACTION section?
How to work the 4 P's
5 major components of mktg plan
1. Executive summary
2. Audit
3. Actions
4. P&L Statement
5. Monitors and control (who, when and by what means will verify success of plan?)
Opportunities and Threats analysis: which factors are reviewed to determine attractiveness of market?
- Size of market
- Growth of market
- Competitive structure
- cyclicality
- risks
5 forces of market's competitive structure
1. Intensity of competition
2. Buyer Power
3. Threat of new entry: competitors
4. Threat of substitutes
5. Power of suppliers
Define cyclicality of market
Fluctuation of sales in market (less = better)
Review market attractiveness now and in the _____
FUTURE (based on same factors)
Strengths and weaknesses include 2 categories of factors:
1. Cost Factors
2. Differentiation factors
Cost advantage determinants (2)
Fixed and variable costs
Differentiation advantage exists if a customer is _____ and when firm gains ____
- willing to pay a PRICE PREMIUM.
- sufficient premium or add additional share to cover the additional costs and investment.
3 strategies if differentiation advantage exists
1. Charge full price premium by increasing price to a point where it offsets the improvement in customer benefits

2. Keep price at level of competitors and use advantage to gain market shares

3. Price ABOVE competitors but below full premium to gain a combo of unit margin improvement and market share gain.
Organization's competitive advantage projected in the...
What has a greater impact on corporate value-- competitive advantage or market attractiveness?
Competitive advantage b/c own abilities can bring in more cash flow (cost structure & differential factors)
Which competitive advantage (cost or differential) is more vulnerable?
Differential advantage b/c cost structure is highly difficult to achieve and replicate (eg ALDI's)
5 strategic objectives
1. Divest (exit)
2. Harvest (prolonged exit)
3. Maintain
4. Enter
5. Growth
Which market attractiveness/ competitive position in matrix is most problematic?
DIVEST/GROW: implies few strategies: bulk up or quit.
2 principle strategic market focuses in order to realise strategic objective
1. Increase sales volume
2. Increase productivity
How should strategic market focus be selected?
Sales volume if: GROW/ENTER

Productivity if: MAINTAIN
4 marketing tasks involved with a sales volume focus
1. Convert non-users
2. Enter new segments
3. Increase usage rate
4. Win competitors' customers
Enter new segments meaning...
divide market into segments
How to incr. usage rate?
Implement new differentiating factors (new, upgraded functions)
Describe cycle associated with sales volumes task
1. New product introduced to first adopters.

2. Innovator segment becomes saturated

3. Knowledge of product spreads: new competitors enter market, prices fall, firm moves into new segments to maintain growth

4. Incr. usage rate per customer, competition's customers convert.

5. Customers become price sensitive, products become similar.
3 marketing tasks involved with productivity focus
1. Reduce costs (FC & VC)
2. Increase prices
3. Enhance sales mix
Why is market segmentation important?
Provides structure to implement strategic market objective(s).
Describe market segmentation
To identify groups/companies that are homogenous to a particular behaviour
Objective of market segmentation
Trying to identify alternative customer groups (diff options)
2 needs that is driving the increasing importance of segmentation capability
1. increasing need to EXPLOIT existing product concepts to full potential

2. need to explore NEW product concepts
Which variables are used to segment consumer market?
Demographics- ethic groups, marital status, geographic location

Psychographics: interests, opinions, lifestyles
Which variables are used to segment industrial markets?
Demographics: size, technology, structure

Psychographics: culture, organizational climate, strategic orientation
Which variables to WORLD CLASS ORGANIZATIONS use to segment the market?
Behavioural and descriptor variables
How do behavioural variables segment market?
Segment on basis of benefits needed by customers
How do descriptor variables segment market?
By demographics and psychographics
Behavioural approach: 4 steps
1. Identify benefits needed or the behaviour that reflects the needed benefits

2. Measure benefits/behaviours for a SAMPLE of consumers

3. Cluster sample into segments

4. Find descriptors that are appropriate for each segment
Why favor behavioural approach?
Guaranteed divergent behaviours among segments

Less risk of obtaining a useless result (customers of diff demographic&psychographics may want same quality of product)
Classification of benefits needed
1. Recognized by customers
- products that met needs
- products that did not meet needs

2. Yet to be recognized by customers
- recognized by firms
- not recognized by firms
How can needs recognized by customers be identified as potential business opportunity?
Need exists = business opportunity
How can needs NOT YET recognized by customers be identified as potential business opp?
Go after benefits that match firm's resources best
Sources of benefits needed
1. Manifest or latent problems w/ current products

2. Changes in environment that incur changes in consumption habits
To uncover problems w/ current product, name the 4 general aspects of consumption process must be analyzed....
1. How customers evaluate existing ALTERNATIVES

2. Problems customers experience during actual buying transaction

3. Difficulties customers experience with disposing of products

4. How well satisfied customers are with product's performance
To uncover changes in consumption habits, name the 5 general environmental factors to review:
1. Demographic trends
2. Economic trends
3. Social trends
4. Technological trends
5. Legal factors
3 principle steps involved in electing market segments
1. Determine value of potential customers

2. Determine competitive potential of competitors

3. Determine dynamic potential of external environment
4 critieria of determining value of potential customers
1. Strategic
2. Significant
3. Profitable
4. Loyal
2 procedures in determining competitive potential of competitors
1. Identification of competitors
2. analysis of competitors
How can competition be identified?
- Degree of keen-ness to compete against each other

- Customer decids on who firm's competitors are (firm is powerless in identification)
How can degree of competition be categorized?
- Direct competition (offered & considered)

- Indirect competition (offered but not considered)

- Potential (not offered but considered)

- Incipient (not offered nor considered)
2 factors that govern the 4 categories of competition
1. Technological viability
2. Marketing intermediaries
Technological viability drives product into which degree of competition?
How can competitors be analyzed?
Identify then predict strategies (cost or differential?)
Surrogates of a low cost strategy
High market share and low prices
Surrogate of a differentiation strategy
high promotion-to-sales ratio
Basic principle in predicting strategy of existing and fture competitors
Put yourself in competitors' shoes
How else can competitor behavior be predicted? (4)
1. Let them tell u (recruit their managers, research, etc)

2. Infer from past behaviors

3. Determine competitors' objectives if strategy not visible
(divest, grow, etc)

4. SWOT analysis on competitor
External environment categorised into 4 groups
Combo of 4 methods to monitor and evaluate PEST factors are:
1. Public opinion poll
2. Analysis of popular press
3. Analyse regulations
4. Scenario analysis (expert opinions for future development)
How does market grow to maturity?
By adding more segments (often thru difficult changes in its positioning strategy)
2 positions of brand in target market segment
4 factors that build the brand strength and stature
- awareness (knowledge)
- favorability (esteem)
- strength (relevance)
- uniqueness (differentiation)
Draw out brand life cycle in a strength-stature matrix of unfocused, emerging potential, leadership and eroding potential
week 8 pg 66
Promotion focus of unfocused (new) brand
- billboards, high frequency & visibility
- attention grabbing
- must follow up with FACTS to create strength and uniqueness of product
Brand with emerging potential means? and what promotional tactics?
means YOUNG but SUCCESSFUL brand (not mainstream but underground faves)

- Same tactics as new brand
Brand with eroding potential (faded) needs revival: promotion focus?
- diagrams, text to build product uniqueness
Product is not just an item produced or sold by firm why? (3)
- Products increasingly customised (no more 'standard' product)

- Products are increasingly defined

- Products are augmented with MORE products&services (upgrades, after-sale services)
Current understanding of what a product is
Anything that is intended to meet a customer need (eg. idea, organizations, celebrities)
2 fundamental decisions made before product is launched
1. Volume of production offered t a target segment

2. How much should be invested into product development
Starting point in making product decisions..customer need vs. sales
- Customers attach value to product (WTP
Product mix determined in terms of...(3)
Define the breadth, length and depth
Breadth: how many product lines available

Length: How many products in each line

Depth: How many variations of products in each line
Differentiate between length and depth
length (additional product) vs. depth (variation of product)
Determinant of product mix decision: business' core strategy (2)
- COST (simple mix)
- Differentiator (complex mix)
Determinant of product mix decision: business' strategic objective
- divest: reduce mix
- grow&enter: incr. volume (COMPLEX MIX)
Determinant of product mix decision: strategic focus (2)
incr. volume: Complex mix

improve productivity: simple mix
Determinant of product mix decision: define NEED FOCUS
Needs of targeted segments to determine complexity of mix
Determinant of product mix decision: competitors and PEST
May need to reflect competitior's mix to evaluate own's mix
To prevent competitiors from threatening core business: define downward/upward stretching
downward: go to a lower value segment than firm typically targets to capture more benefits

upward: go to higher value segment (more difficult, usually must buy a new brand)
Define fighter products (describe role)
Products addedto the line and targeted at price-sensitive accounts most at risk from new competition

- to segment market and limit as far as possible the overall decline in margins caused by price competition
Price = most important 'P' for corp. value, why?
no price = no cash flow
Implication of price importance
- Intense competition b/c it can change market so quickly

- PRICE WAR: price spiral can put infrastructure spending on the line
How internet influences management of price
- High price transparency
- Window into competitors' price offerings
Define traditional pricing concepts (2)
1. Mark-up pricing: consists of production cost + % profits desired

2. Target-return pricing: Price desired for selling expected # of products w/ returns ad production cost included
Problems with traditional pricing concepts (4)
1. Ignore demand
2. Ignore perceived value of product to customer
3. Ignore value created by effective marketing
4. Ignore competition
4 principles that underlie effective pricing for corp. value maximisation
1. Based on value that product offers to customers

2. Prices should be customised so that these value differences are capitalized on.

3. Prices should anticipate reactions of competitors and their long run objectives in market

4. Pricing should be integrated with firm's broad strategic positioning
2 issues with price decisions surrounding competitors that must be considered
1. How will competition react and what are the subsequent effects on profits?

2. Way of influencing competitors towards LESS damaging responses
Industry characteristics that affect ability to shape competitor reactions (4)
1. # of competitors (more is better)
2. Differences among competitors (more diff is better)
3. Price transparency (more is better)
4. Short run price gains from price- cutting (less is better)
Price cooperation is the best way to avoid pitfalls what are the 2 ways:
1. Price signalling (warn competitors of change)
2. Tit-for-tat (follow competitor's price changes)
Strategic approach to pricing (4 steps)
1. Set parameter of price range according to strategic position

2. Set price (no product designed yet)

3. Determine cost level (to ensure positive cash flow)

4. Design product on these grounds
Three-tier value segmentation of most markets in terms of typical brand positions are...
economy, business, first-class
How do price variations within and across value segments impact buying behaviour?
- Price elasticity within a value segment is usually HIGHER than between brands in different value segments

- More switches from high to low value segments (not symmetrical)
2 price positions
skimming or penetration
Define skimming price and when it should be selected
- Price set to maximise UNIT MARGINS (high price range)

Selected when:
- High barriers to market entry exists (luxury goods)
- Demand is inelastic
- Few economies of scale (no room to reduce costs)
Define penetration price and when it's selected
- Price set to maximise SALES VOLUME (low price range)

Selected when:
- Low barriers of entry
- Demand is ELASTIC
- large economies of scale
New way of pricing: INDIVIDUAL PRICING. define
- same product priced differently for different people
- no 'standard' set price
Decide on price variation: PROMOTIONAL PRICING: what are the tools? (2)
1. Trade promotions - discounts & allowances
2. Consumer promotions - coupons, cash rebate, interest free for # years
Rule for promotional pricing
must be CONSISTENT since market&competition react aggressively to price changes
Sales effects of promotional pricing
Powerful driver for sales!
Policies for price variations with promotional pricing
BEST: no price variation (no sales, discounts)

If must vary: low prices everyday

- Seasonal sales
4 functions of a channel
1. Information generation
2. Selling
3. Deivery
4. Financing
Basic channel designs available
1. Direct
2. Indirect
3. Multiple-Channel
4. Hybrid-Channel
What are direct channels?
Manufacturer owns entire channel from origin to consumption
What are indirect channels?
When aspects of channel not owned by manufacturer
When are direct channels preferable? (5)
1. When needs for info. are high
2. When product customization is important
3. When quality assurance matters
4. When selling large quantities
5. When transportation and storage are complex
When are indirect channels preferable? (3)
1. Product relies on one-stop shopping (eg. grocery in supermarket)

2. Need availability (geographic spread) to distribute products

3. After-sales service is important
What are multi-channel systems?
Combo of direct and indirect: deliver product to different segments thru different channels
Disadvantages of multi-channel systems (2)
1. Complex (maintenance of all channels)
2. Different degrees of control
What are hybrid-channel systems?
Combo of direct & indirect channels but with MULTIPLE pathways to SAME segment
Disadvantages of hybrid-channel systems (2)
1. Complexity
2. Loss of control thru issues of conflict between diff. channels
6 factors that influence the design of an optimal channel structure
1. Stage of market
2. Strategic objective
3. Strategic focus
4. Targeted segments (benefits needed)
5. Competitors & PEST factors
6. Core strategy (diff vs cost)
Define 'stage' of market
the MATURITY of market: high service or low cost?
For strategic objectives 'enter/grow' & 'divest', what are the optimal channel choices?
'enter/grow': MULTIPLE channels to drive in more customers

'divest': INDIRECT channel to strip out costs and eventually sell business
For strategic focus- incr. volume or improve productivity; what are the optimal channel choices?
Volume- MULTIPLE channel with large # of retailers

Productivity: Indirect, strip out costs
Benefits needed: suitable channel structure? eg. Airline companies
Usually hybrid for airline companies as they sell to individual/groups (unis, companies)
Core strategy (cost/differentiation advantage) : suitable channel structure?
1. Cost: Indirect, cheaper using 3rd parties

2. Differentiation: prefer direct
Typical sources of conflict in marketing channels (4)
1. Goal divergence
2. Unclear roles
3. Differences in perceptio of reality
4. Misuse of power
4 sources of channel power to resolve channel conflict
1. Coercive power
2. Reward power
3. Legitimate power
4. Expert power
Which indirect channel members have the greatest effect of brand equity?
the RETAILER: aspect of channel that faces customer, thus most influencial
How can manufacturers manage retailers?
Push & pull strategy
Define push strategy
To push product thru retailer into market
Define pull strategy
To pull customers to product thru retailers (i.e. advertise to customers, then they go ask for product from retailer)
How can manufacturers support retailers? (2)
Retail segmentation
Cooperative advertising
Define retail segmentation
To provide differentiated products to different retailers
Define cooperative advertising
To pay for a portion of the advertising that a retailer runs
What direct channel member have greatest effect on brand equity?
The company owned store
What are the primary motivations for company-owned stores? (3)
- To serve as displays
- Tourist attractions (LV in paris)
- Form of customer education
How the internet is influencing market channels
Permits separation of products from economies of info, selling, delivery and financing. Companies and customers can interact at almost zero cost.
What makes direct model attractive to customers? Potential for benefits? (4)
Potential for..
1. Lower prices
2. Greater assortment
3. More convenience
4. Customized service
What makes direct model attractive to suppliers? Potentials for benefits? (3)
Potential for...
1. Lower costs
2. Control over entire channel
3. Direct r'ships w/ customer
Components of promotion function (4)
1. Advertising
2. Sales promotion
3. Personal selling
4. Publicity
Traditional accountant view of promotions
1. Promotion = Cost, not investment
2. Awareness is not quantifiable
Weaknesses of 'promotions=costs' view
1. Long term effects of mktg are ignored
2. Margins will continue at current/decline if there are no returns from promotion
Responsible view of promotion: what should it be evaluated upon?
Its effects on shareholder value (impact on NPV of cash flow)
2 high involvement promotions models
1. rational persuasion model (make aware-think-feel-do)

2. Image persuasion model (make aware-feel-think-do)
Advertisement tactics in the 2 models
1. think-feel-do: ad w/ more text, information, facts

2. feel-think-do: ad w/ main focus on a graphic image
1st step in developing promotions strategy?
Understand the brand
Aim in understanding brand thru promotion:
Manages how other 3 P's are consolidated in a meaningful brand story so customers are satisfied (draw out diagram)
2nd step in developing promotions strategy?
Understand the brand audience
2 factors in determining communication objectives
1. Degree of customer involvement in buying decision
2. Degree of rationality in buying decision
High involvement + high rational: what should promtions strategy focus on?
The benefits and value attributes brand offers (emotional, exclusive)
High involvement + low rational, what should promotions strategy focus on?
Value attributes brand offer (emotions- e.g. vintage mustang)
Low involvement + high rational: what should promo strategy focus on?
Benefits brand offer (information, facts)
3rd & 4th step in developing promo strategy
Design the msg
Decide on promotion budget
Budgeting is the most difficult task, what's the goal (1) and rules of thumb? (4)
*Select a budget that maximises NPV of all future cash flows*

- overall effect of promotion on sales is usually small

- promotion has DIMINISHING effects in terms of sale results (reach soon > frequency of ads)

- Critical for new brands

- Promotion elasticities are normally low for mature brands
Final step of developing promo strategy?
Allocating budget across promo mix
To allocate budget efficiently must assess ____ & ____ of each promo variable
strengths and weaknesses
S&W: Advertising
S: Reach out
W: Not enough persuasion
S&W: Sales promotion
S: Provides trial
W: Image damaging (sign of disparity)
S&W: Public relations
S: Increases credibility
W: Not capable to control external opinions
S&W: Personal selling
S: Personal, direct feedback
W: Costly
S&W: Direct marketing
S: Target specifics