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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Acquired needs
Needs that are learned in response to one's culture or environment.
Approach object
A positive goal toward which behavior is directed.
Avoidance object
A negative goal form which behavior is directed away.
Defense Mechanism
Methods by which people mentally redefine frustrating situations to protect their self-images and their self-esteem.
Emotional Motives
The selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria.
Generic Goals
The general classes or categories of goals that individuals select to fulfill their needs.
Innate Needs
Physiological needs for food, water, air, clothing, shelter, and sex.
Level of Aspiration
New and higher goals that individual set for themselves.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
A theory of motivation that postulates that individuals strive to satisfy their needs according to a basic hierarchical structure, starting with physiological needs, then moving to safety needs, social needs, egoistic needs, and finally self-actualization needs.
The driving force within individuals that impels them to action.
Motivational Research
Qualitative research designed to uncover consumers' subconscious or hidden motivations. The basic premise of motivational research is that consumersare not always aware of, or may not wish to reveal, the basic reasons underlying their actions.
Positive versus Negative Motivation
A driving force toward some object or condition versus a driving force away from some object or condition.
Prepotent Need
An overriding need, from among several needs, that serves to initiate goal-directed behavior.
Psychological reactance
A state where people become motivationally aroused by a threat to or elimination of a behavioral freedom.
Product-Specific Goals
The specifically branded or labeled products that consumers select to fulfill their needs.
Rational motives
Motives or goals based on economic or objective criteria, such as price, size, weight, or miles-per gallon.
Substitute Goal
A goal that replaces an indviduals primary goal when that goal cannot be achieved or acquired.