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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is consumer behavior?
is the process individuals or groups go through to select, purchase, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and desires.
What are the intenral influences?
1. Perception
2. Motivation
3. Learning
4. Attitudes
5. Personality
6. Age groups
7. Lifestyle
What are the social influences?
1. Culture
2. Subculture
3. Social class
4. Group memberships
What are the situational influences?
1. Physical environment
2. Time
What are the types of decision making?
Routine decision making
Limited problem solving
Extended problem solving
What is involvement?
refers to the amount of time and effort a buyer invests in the search, evaluation & decision process for a product.
What is perceived risk?
the anxieties felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase.
What are the types of perceived risk?
Performance risk
Financial risk
Physical risk
Social risk
Time-loss risk
What is problem recognition?
occurs when the consumer becomes aware that there is a discrepancy between an actual state and a desired state.
What two factors affect the desire to resolve a problem?
the magnitude or size of the discrepancy
the relative importance of the problem
What are evaluative criteria?
the factors consumers consider when evaluating a product.
What are the evoked set of alternatives?
Alternatives given consideration, either the specific alternative purcahsed or the alternatives considered but not purchased
What are the inert set of alternatives?
Backup alternatives
What are the inept set of altenratives?
Avoided alternatives
What is perception?
is the process by which we select, organize, and interpret information from the outside world.
What is motivation?
an internal state that drives us to satisfy needs.
What is Maslow's Hierarchy of needs?
Physiological needs
Safety needs
Ego needs
Self actualization
What is behavioral learning?
is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to the situation.
What is the difference between classical and operant conditioning?
Classical Conditioning: associations

Operant Conditioning: reinforcement
What is stimulus generalization?
occurs when a response elicited by one stimulus is generalized to another.
What is cognitive learning?
Involves making connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of other's behaviors and adjusting one's behavior accordingly.
What are attitudes?
are learned predispositions to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way to an object or class of objects.
What is personality?
is the set of unique psychological characteristics that consistently influences the way a person responds to situations in the environment.
What are the personality traits?
Need for Cognition
What is self concept?
is the way people see themselves and believe others see them.
What are subcultures?
are homogeneous groups of people who share elements of the overall culture as well as unique elements of their own group.
What are cultures?
is the values, beliefs, customs, and tastes, produced or practiced by a group of people. Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next .
What are reference groups?
are all of the formal and informal groups in society that influence an individual's purchasing behavior.
What is conformity?
is at work when a person changes as a reaction to real or imagined group pressure.
What is consumer socialization?
is the process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to function as consumers
What is an opinion leader?
a person that influences other’s attitudes or behaviors because others perceive her as possessing expertise about the product.
What are virtual communities?
Virtual Communities
Multi-User Dungeons (MUDs)
Rooms, Rings, Lists
Auction sites
Product Rating sites
Protest sites
What is consumer behavior?
The process involved when individuals or groups select, purcahse, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and choices.
What is involvement?
The relative importance of perceived consequences of the purcahse to a consumer.
What is perceived risk?
The belief that choice of a product has potentially negative consequences, either financial, physical, or social.
What is problem recognition?
The process that occurs whenever the consuemr sees a significant difference between his or her current state of affairs and some desired or ideal state; this recognition intiates the decision making process.
What are evaluative criteria?
The dimensions used by consumers to compare competing product alternatives
What are heuristics?
A mental rule of thumb that leads to a speedy decision by simplifying the process.
What is brand loyalty?
A pattern of repeat prodcut purcahses, acompanied by an underlying positive attitude toward the brand that is used on the belief that the brand makes products superior to its competition
What is consumer satisfaction/disatisfaction?
The overall feelings or attitude a person has about a product after purchasing it.
What is perception?
The process by which people select, organize, and interpret information from the outside world.
What is motivation?
An internal state that drives us to satisfy needs by activating goal-oriented behavior.
What is hierarchy of needs?
An approach that categorizes motives according to five levels of importance, the more basic needs being on the bottom of the hierarchy and the higher needs at the top.
What is learning?
A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by acquired information or experience
What are behavioral learning thoeries?
Theories of learning that focus on how consumer behavior is changed by external events and stimuli
What is classical conditioning?
Learning that occurs when a stimulus eliciting a response is paired with another simulus that initially does not elicit a response byt eventually does because of its association
What is operant conditioning?
learning that occurs as the result of rewards or punishments
What is the cognitive learning theory?
Theory of learning that stresses the importance of internal mental processes and that views people as problem solvers who actively use information from the world around them to master their environment
What is attitude?
A learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to stimuli on the basis of relatively enduring evaluations of people, objects, and issues.
What is personality?
The psychological characteristics that consistently influence the way a person responds to situations in his or her environment
What is innovativeness?
the degree to which a person likes to try new things.
What is materialism?
The amount of emphasis placed on owning products.
What is self-confidence?
The degree to which a person has a positive evaluation of her abilities including the ability to make good decisions.
What is sociability?
The degree to which a person enjoys social interaction.
What is the need for cognition?
The degree to which a person likes to think about things and expend the necessary effort to process brand information.
What is self-concept?
An individual's self image that is composed of a micture of beliefs, observations, anf eelings about personal attributes.
What is the family life cycle?
A means of cahracterizing consumers within a family structure on the basis of diferent stages through which people pass as they grow older.
What is lifestyle?
The pattern of living that determines how poeple choose to spend their time, money, and their energy and that reflects their values, tastes, and preferences.
What are psychographics?
The use of psychological, sociologica, and anthropological factors to construct market segments.
What is a reference group?
An actual or imaginary individual or group that has a significant effect on an individual's evaluations, aspirations, or behavior.
What is conformity?
A change in beliefs or actions as a reaction to real or imagined group pressure.
What is an opinion leader?
A person who is frequently able to influence others' attitudes or behaviors by virtue of his or her active interest and expertise in one or more product categories
What is consumer to consumer e-commerce?
Communications and purchases that occur among individuals without directly involving the manufacturer or retailer