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30 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 major worm phyla?
1) Platyhelmentis (Flatworms)
2) Nementia (Ribbon Worms)
3) Annelida (Segmented worms)
Worms in general...?
* Big leap forward: 3RD tissue layer
*More complex and larger.
*Bilateral symmetry
WHat is cephalization?
An evolutionary trend to place neural and sensory organs in the head or near the anterior of it.
sense go to the front...chomp! i can feel it, and i can get away in time before the rest of me gets it.
Bilateral symmetry?
Anterior (front), Posterior (back), Dorsal (top), and Ventral (bottom).
To have three primary germ layers.
Why is the THIRD tissue layer considered a BIG leap forward in worms?
Because this third tissue layer allows for guts and entire organ systems to be made.
Characteristics of the platyhelmentis?
*Flat, and plate-like
*There are four classes; turbilaria, monogenea, trimatodes, sestoda.
*Incomplete gut (blind gut)
*Protonephridia (network of dead-end tubules)
*centralized nerve system
What are some of the things that make up the platyhelmentis' centralized nerve system?
*2 ventral nerve cords
What is a protonephridia?
A network of dead-end tubules that act like the 'kidneys'.
What does acoelumate mean?
Having no hollow-body cavity.
Which of the 4 classes of playhelmentis are parasitic? Which is the only 'normal' group?
PARASITIC: Monogenea, Trimatodes, and Sestoda.

'NORMAL': Turbilaria.
What is a cirrus? And what is a cloacha?
Cirrus is a very simplified version of a penis.

Cloacha is a simplified version of a vagina.
What are the reproductive means of the playhelmentis?
ASEXUALLY: Fragmentation (cut it in the middle, and the two pieces will become two new worms)

SEXUALLY: Hermaphroditically ('compliment'[?])
Characteristics of the Nementia?
*pseudo-coelumate (FAKE hollow-body cavity)
*complete gut
*TRUE digestive system
*Closed circulatory system
*Simplified renal system
What is the flow of the nementia's digestive system?
mouth--> heart--> stomach--> caecum--> intestines--> anus
What does it mean if a nemertia has a pseudo-coelumate?
The guts bounce around, meaning MAJOR limitations on the worm's part.
What are the two classes of the Nemertia?
What is the distinction between the enopla and the anopla?
The ENOPLA has stylets. The ANOPLA dont.
What is a stylet?
These are bullet-like appendages by which the nemertia uses to penetrate the cell wall of it's host.
WHat is the only part of the anatomy of the nemertia that you can remember?
The proboscis (UNIQUE to the Nemertia), which is housed inside the pseudo-coelum.
How do the Nemertia reproduce?
ASEXUALLY: Fragmetnation (some of them anyways, can do this, just like the flatworm).

SEXUALLY: Gonocharistically (either male/female).
External fertilization (spawning).
What's one 'interesting' fact about the nemertia that you can remember?
They are predators/scavengers.

And also, they are benthic, mobile creatures.
Characteristics of the Annelids?
*Bilateral symmetry
*Coelumate-ACTUALLY have a true hollow body cavity.
*Complete gut
*Complete and complex organ system.
*Closed circulatory system
*Complex cephalization- "funny head"
What are the THREE classes of the Annelids?
REPRODUCTIVE means of the Annelids?
Most are gonocaristic, as they are sooo complex, they need to choose.
What are parapodia?
para(almost)+podia(feet)=almost feet.
What are the radioles?
these are extensions that come off the head, and are used for feeding (either by suspension feeding/deposit feeding).

These are also used for gas exchange (but if the worm doesn't have radioles, then the parapodia are used for gas exchange).
What are the REPRODUCTIVE means of the Annelids?
Since there are no real evidence of dedicated assexual reproduction, they are only left with gonocaristicism (if that is even a word).

Also, they are VERY good at regenerating, and there is evidence of both internal and external fertilization.
What are the larvae of Annelids called?
Trochlophore larvae (1) have a diamond-shaped sort of body, (2) and havea cilliary band around their waist.
What is the ecology of the annelids?
*Some are MOBILE (epibenthic).
*Some are SEDENTARY (moves infrequently).
*Some are SESSILE (dig a hole and settle there, they can't move once they do because that's it; they area permanent fixture).
Mostly predatory and/or filter-feeders.