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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
biodiversity (species, genetic, ecosystem)
is “the collection of gene pools, species, and ecosystems occuring in a geographically defined region.”

Biodiversity is measured according to:
1. genetic diversity: diversity of genes within a species. There is a genetic variability among the populations and the individuals of the same species
2. species diversity: diversity among species in an ecosystem
3. ecosystem diverstiy: diversity at a higher level of organization, the ecosystem. To do with the variety of ecosystems on Earth.
base unit of most food chains, creates its own food, photosynthesize
plankton cannot produce its own food and relies on food produced by other organisms, drifitng marine animals
swimmers, most adult fish and squid (many are plankton in larval stage), marine mammals and some humans
benthic/demersal species*
bottom dwellers
- including coral, crabs, sea urcins, starfish, most shellfish
- some fish that live primarily in marine sediments are also considered benthid (e.g. flounder)
- another term for bottom-dwelling species is demersal
marine env. factors
dissolved gases
light (transparency)
oceanic biozones: neritic, oceanic
neritic: part of pelagic, extends 200 meters deep
oceanic: further out to sea, goes beyond 200 meters, broken into 4 zones
zone where photosynthesis is possible is the photic, usually about 100m
between photic and aphotic zones, no plant life exists b/c not enough sunlight
the ocean water itself, where floaters and swimmers frolic in a complex food web
refers to the ocean bottom, where marine algae and animals do not usually float or swim
can produce light organically, 50% of deep sea fish, use special cells to produce light
primary productivity*
rate at which energy is stored by organisms through the formation of organic matter using solar or chemical reactions
reaction in which energy from the Sun is stored in organic molecules
type of algae, most abundant primary producers, most productive group of marine algae, contained in a "test"
another type of algae that is able to move around into areas for better photosynthesis
red tides
occurs whnere there are too many dinoflagellates in one area, causes oxygen to be used up and results in many marine organisms suffocating to death, can also be called a "harmful algal bloom"
dead zones*
occur in large areas of eutrophication, occure near the mouths of major rivers after large spring runoffs, oxygen levels drop like whoa; dead zone at the end of the Mississsippi River from nutrients from agricultural runoff
food chains/webs
sequence of organisms through which energy is transferred, starting with an organism that is a primary producer, thena herbivore, then a carnivore and then a top carnivore
trophic levels*
a feeding stage, one animal eats another animal; blue whale eats krill TROPHIC LEVEL, transfer of energy inefficient between trophic levels
biomass pyramid
number of individuals and total biomass decreases at successive trophic levels because amount of available energy decreases, usually larger animals as you go up the pyramid