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48 Cards in this Set

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John Quincy Adams
-secretary of state when he played a key role in promoting the goal of control of Oregon country
-Adams-Onis Treaty
John Jacob Astor
American fur trader
Jim Beckwourth
African American who explored Wyoming's Green River
South Pass
main route settlers took to Oregon
Robert Stuart and Jedediah Smith
found South Pass, broad break through Rockies
Oregon Trail
Trail pioneers took to get to Oregon country
prairie schooner
vas-covered wagon with the pioneers' supplies and everything they owned
Williamette Valley
pioneers who were headed for the Oregon country headed for this fertile valley
James K. Polk
Democratic Party's delegate
supported American claims for sole ownerhsip of Oregon
"Fifty-four Forty or Fight."
Henry Clay
Whig Party
did not take strong position on Oregon issue
Davy Crockett
when he lost in seat in Congress in 1835, he headed for Texas and fought for Texas's independence from Mexico
Moses Austin
applied for and recieved the first land grant in 1821
Stephen F. Austin
son of Moses Austin
organized 300 American families to settle the fertile land along Brazos River and Colorado River
300 American families known as Old Three Hundred
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
president of Mexico in 1833
agreed to first request for Texas's independence but refused the second
named himself dictator and overthrew Mexico's constitution
reorganized government, placing greater central control over regions
Alamo
where a small Texan force barricaded inside a nearby mission
almost every one was killed in the BATTLE OF THE ALAMO
war -->
defenders of the Alamo killed hundreds of Mexican soldiers
bought Texans much needed time
Sam Houston
lead Texan forces in Battle of Goliad
served in Congress and as governor of Tennessee
fought was Andrew Jackson against Creek people
Goliad Massacre
Houston ordered troops at Goliad to abandon posistion. Came face to face w/Mexican troops. Several hundred Texans surrendered, and the captured ones were executed.
Battle of San Jacinto
Houston lead Texan troops at a surprise attack on the Mexican camp [San Jacinto]. This lead to Santa Anna signing a treaty that recognized the independence of Texas.
John Tyler
became president in 1841
supported adding Texas to the Union and persuaded Texas to reapply for annexation
William Becknell
first American trader to reach Santa Fe
Becknell's route to Santa Fe came to be knwon as the Santa Fe Trail
Santa Fe Trail
Becknell's route
Became busy trade route for hundreds of wagons
Traded items in Santa Fe
Trail remained in use until arrival of the railroad in 1880
Mission System
key part of Spain's plan to colonize California
John C. Fremont
army officer who made several trips through California in the 1840s who wrote of this region's mild climate, scenic beauty, and abundant resources
General Zachary Taylor
Polk ordered Taylor to march his soldiers across the disputed borderland between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande, and then Taylor built a fort there on his arrival.
Taylor's troops captured the town of Monterrey and defeated Mexicans again at Buena Vista
SECURED TEXAS BORDER
Polk's War Plan
-American troops would drive Mexican forces out of the disputed border region in Texas and make the border secure
-U.S. would seize New Mexico and California
-American forces would take Mexico City
Supporters & "desupporters" toward the Mexican War
Democrats [Polk's party] supported Mexican War
Whigs opposed the war, along with Abraham Lincoln
Northerners accused Democrats of waging war to spread slavery
Newspaper supported the war
General Stephen Watts Kearny
-lead troops into New Mexico, and the governor fled. Santa Fe was captured without firing a single shot
helped
met and joined with Carson on the way to California
helped gain control over California
General Winfield Scott
devised brilliant campaign that brought the Mexican War to a speedy conclusion
brought Mexican War to an end
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Mexico gave up all claims to Texas and agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico
MEXICAN CESSION- Mexico ceded its provinces of California and New Mexico to the U.S.
In return, U.S. gave Mexico $15 million
Alamo
where a small Texan force barricaded inside a nearby mission
almost every one was killed in the BATTLE OF THE ALAMO
war -->
defenders of the Alamo killed hundreds of Mexican soldiers
bought Texans much needed time
Sam Houston
lead Texan forces in Battle of Goliad
served in Congress and as governor of Tennessee
fought was Andrew Jackson against Creek people
Goliad Massacre
Houston ordered troops at Goliad to abandon posistion. Came face to face w/Mexican troops. Several hundred Texans surrendered, and the captured ones were executed.
Battle of San Jacinto
Houston lead Texan troops at a surprise attack on the Mexican camp [San Jacinto]. This lead to Santa Anna signing a treaty that recognized the independence of Texas.
John Tyler
became president in 1841
supported adding Texas to the Union and persuaded Texas to reapply for annexation
William Becknell
first American trader to reach Santa Fe
Becknell's route to Santa Fe came to be knwon as the Santa Fe Trail
Santa Fe Trail
Becknell's route
Became busy trade route for hundreds of wagons
Traded items in Santa Fe
Trail remained in use until arrival of the railroad in 1880
Mission System
key part of Spain's plan to colonize California
John C. Fremont
army officer who made several trips through California in the 1840s who wrote of this region's mild climate, scenic beauty, and abundant resources
General Zachary Taylor
Polk ordered Taylor to march his soldiers across the disputed borderland between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande, and then Taylor built a fort there on his arrival.
Taylor's troops captured the town of Monterrey and defeated Mexicans again at Buena Vista
SECURED TEXAS BORDER
Polk's War Plan
-American troops would drive Mexican forces out of the disputed border region in Texas and make the border secure
-U.S. would seize New Mexico and California
-American forces would take Mexico City
Supporters & "desupporters" toward the Mexican War
Democrats [Polk's party] supported Mexican War
Whigs opposed the war, along with Abraham Lincoln
Northerners accused Democrats of waging war to spread slavery
Newspaper supported the war
General Stephen Watts Kearny
-lead troops into New Mexico, and the governor fled. Santa Fe was captured without firing a single shot
helped
met and joined with Carson on the way to California
helped gain control over California
General Winfield Scott
devised brilliant campaign that brought the Mexican War to a speedy conclusion
brought Mexican War to an end
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Mexico gave up all claims to Texas and agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico
MEXICAN CESSION- Mexico ceded its provinces of California and New Mexico to the U.S.
In return, U.S. gave Mexico $15 million
Gadsden Purchase
U.S. paid Mexico an additional $10 million for the strip of land along the southern edge of the present-day states of Arizona and New Mexico
With this, the U.S. reached its present size.
Long-lasting effects [gold rush]
agriculture, shipping, and trade expanded to meet the miners' needs for food and other goods
california's population expanded from about 20,000 in 1848 to more than 220,000 only 4 years later
Joseph Smith
founded Mormon church in 1830
Brigham Young
took over as head of Mormons after Smith was killed
decided the Mormons should move again, this time near Great Salt Lake