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280 Cards in this Set

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one thing depends on the other things; for organizations to be effective, there must be a "goodness of fit" between their structure and the conditions in their external environment
refers to the work an organization does by using electronic linkages
regers to business exchanges or transactions that occur electronically
pertain to the availability, production, and distribution of resources in a society
economic forces
systematic efforts to find, organize, and make available a company's intellectual capital and to foster a culture of continuous learning and knowledge sharing so a company's activites build on what is known
knowledge management
one in which everyone is engaged in identifying and solving problems, enabling the organization to experiment, change, and improve continuously, thus increasing its capacity to grow, learn, and achieve its purpose
learning organization
the effective and efficient attainment of organization goals through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources
a goal-directed and deliberately structured social entity
the degree to which the organization achieves a stated goal
organizational effectiveness
regers to the amount of resources used to achieve an organization goal; use of minimal to produce a desired volume of output
organizational efficiency
the attainment of organization goals by efficiently and effectively using resources
refer to the influence of political and legal institutions on people and organizations
political forces
set of expectations for a manager's behavior
postulates that decisions about organizations and job design should be based on precise, scientic study of individual situations
scientific management
aspects of culture that guide and influence relationships among people; what do people value? what do people need? what are people's behavior standards?
social forces
concept that focuses on managing the total organization to deliver quality to customers
total quality management (TQM)
four significant elements of TQM
employee involvement, focus on customer, benchmarking, and continuous improvement
4 elements of management
planning, organizing, leading, controlling
management today emphasizes...
human touch, flexibility, and employee involvement
_______ is a major source of business ________
Change; Risk
driving forces of organizational change
telecommunications, diversity of workers, public consciousness, global marketplace, community of stakeholders
defines goals for future organizational performance; decides tasks and use of resources needed
planning function
follows planning; reflects how organization tries to accomplish/execute plan; involves assignment of ____ into ________ and authority and allocation resources across organization
organizing function
monitoring employees' activities; determines whether organization is on target; make corrections if necessary
control function
new trends of controlling function
empowerment and trust of employees; new info technology provides control without strict top-down constraints
management skills
conceptual, human, technical
cognitive ability to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its part
conceptual skills
ability to work with and through other people and to work effectively as a group memeber
human skills
understanding of and proficiency in the performance specific tasks
technical skills
responsible for a department that performs a single functional task and has employees with similar training and skills
functional manager
responsibile for several departments that perform different functions
general manager
manager roles
informational, decisional, interpersonal
monitor, disseminator, spokesperson
entrepreneur, distrubance handler, resource allocator, negociator
figurehead, leader, liaison
management and new workplace need to....
embrance ambiguity, create organizations that are fast, flex, adaptable, and relationship-oriented, and focuse on leadership, staying connected to employees and customers, team building, and developing a learning organization
crisis management skill
stay calm
be visible
put people before business
known when to get back to business
tell the truth
rational, scientific, approach to management; make organizations efficient operating machines
-scientific management
-bureaucratic organizations
-administrative principles
classical perspective
-developed standard method for performing each job
-selected workers with appr. abilities
-trained workers in standard method
-supported workers by planning work and eliminating interruptions
-provided wage incentives
scientific management
-Max Weber
-European employees were loyal to a single ind. rather than to the org. or its mission
-based on rational authority
bureaucratic management
-Henri Fayol, Mary Parker Follet, Chester I. Barnard
-focus on org. rather than ind.
-delineated the mangement functions of planning, org., commanding, coordinating, and controlling
admnistrative principles
division of labor
unity of commmand
unity of direction
scalar chain
Henri Fayol
importance of common goals for reducing conflit
leadership-importnace of people vs. engineering techniques
Mary Parker Follet
Informal Organization
Acceptance Theory of Authority
Chester Barnard
emphasized understanding human behavior, needs, and attitudes in the workplace
humanistic perspective
Theory X and Y
Douglas McGregor
dislike work-will avoid it
must be coerced, controlled, etc
perfer direction
Theory X assumptions
do not dislike work
self direction and control
seek responsibility
imagination, creativity
intellectual potentional
Theory Y
emerged after WWII
applied mathamatics, stats, and other techniques
management science perspective
recent historical trends
systems theory, TQM, contingency theory
a results oriented culture that values competitiveness, personal initiative and achievement
achievement culture
characterized by values that support the company's ability to interpret and translate signals from the env. into new behavior responses
adaptability culture
culture that values and rewards a methodical, rational, orderly way of doing things
consistency culture
general environment
sociocultural, economic, technological, legal/political, international
task environment
customers, competitors, suppliers, labor markets
levels of corporate culture
visible, invisible
artifacts, such as dress, office layout, symbols, slogans
visible corporate culture
expressed values, underlying assumptions and deep beliefs
invisible corporate culture
4 types of corporate culture
consistency, involvement, adaptability, achievement
a culture that places high value on meeting the needs of employees and values cooperation and equity
involvement culture
articulates a vision for the org. in which employees can believe
over communicate
heeds the day-to-day activites that reinforce cultural vision
lead by example
4 stages of globalization
domestic stage, international stage, multinational stage, global stage
market potential is limited to the home country; prod. and marketing facilities located at home
domestic stage
exports increase; company usually adopts a multi-domestic approach
international stage
marketing and produciton facilities located in many countries; more than 1/3 of sales outside home country
multinational stage
making sales and acquiring resources in whatever country offers the best deal; ownership, control, and top management tend to be dispersed
global stage
some principles of international business relations
show respect, liste, do not think your way is best, know or take someone who knows the culture, avoid clique building, eliminate stereotypes
key factors in international environment
economic, legal-political, socioculture
dimensions of social value systems
-power distance
-uncertainty avoidance
-individualism and collectivism
-long term vs short term orientaiton-time
GLOBE Project Value Dimensions
assertiveness, future orientation, gender differnciation, etc.
-signed by 23 nations
-tariff concessions, countries agree to limit level of tarriffs on imports from other members
GATT (General Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade)
-formed to improve economic and social conditions
-25 nation alliance
-monetary revolution
European Union (EU)
-merged U.S., Canada, and Mexico with more than 421 million consumers
-breaks down tariffs and trade restrictions on most agriculture and manufactured products
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
the code of moral principles and values that govern the behaviors of a person or group with respect to what is right and wrong
three domains of human action
certified law
free choice
arises in a situation concerning right or wrong when values are in conflict; right and wrong cannot be clearly identified
ethical dilemma
4 considerations in ethical decision making
-utilitarian approach
-individualism approach
-moral-rights approach
-justice approach
moral behavior produces the greatest good for the greatest #
utilitarian approach
acts are moral when they promote the invidual's best long-term interests
individualism approach
asserts human beings have fundamental rights and liberties
moral rights approach
moral decisions must be based on standards of equity, fairness, and impartiality
justice approach
3 types of justice
requires that diff. treatment of people not be based on arbitrary characteristics
requires that rules be administered fairly
argues that individuals should be compensated for the cost of their injuries by the party responsible
3 levels of personal moral development
management's obligation to make choices and take actions that will contribute to the welfare and interests of society as well as the org.
social responsibility
satisfy legal requirements regarding environmental conservation
legal approach
respond to customers
market approach
address multiple stakeholder concerns
stakeholder approach
actively conserve the environment
activist approach
total corporate responsibility
-economic responsibility
-legal responsibility
-ethical responsibility
-discretionary responsibility
a choice made from available alternatives
the process of identifying problems and opportunities and then resolving them
decision making
decisions made in response to a situation that has occured often enough to enable decision rules to be developed and applied in the future
programmed decisions
decisions made in response to a unique situation, are poorly defined and largely unstructured, and have imp. consequences for the org.
nonprogrammed decisions
all the information the decision maker needs is fully available
the goals to be achieved or the problem to be solved is unclear; alternatives are difficult to define; info about outcomes is unavailable
managers know which goals they wish to achieve, but info about alternatives and future events is incomplete
a decision has clear goals and good info available, but the future outcomes associated with each alternative are subject to chance
3 decision making models
based on the assumption that managers should make logical decisions that will be in the organizations best economic interests; goals that are known and agreed upon; certainty; criteria for evaluating are known
classical model
describes how managers make decisions in situations characterized by nonprogrammed decisions, uncertainty, and ambiguity
administrative model
2 concepts to shape administrative model
-bounded rationality
the concept that people have the time and cognitive ability to process a limited amount of info on which to base decisions
bounded rationality
to choose the first solution alternative that satisifies minimal decision criteria regardless of whether better solutions are presumed to exist
resembles real environment make decisons; disagreement/conflict over problems and solutions are normal; make nonprogrammed decisions
political model
6 steps of managerial decision making process
1) recognitions of decision
2) Diagnosis and analyis of causes
3) Development of alternatives
4) Selection of desired alternative
5)implementation of chosen alternative
6) evaluation and feedback
a model designed to help managers gauge the amount of subordinate participation in decision making
vroom-jago model
raw facts and figures that by themselves may be useless
data converted into a meaningful and useful context for specific users
operations information systems
-office automation systems
-transaction processsing systems
-process control systems
combine modern hardware and software such as word processors to handle the tasks of publishing and distributing info
office automation system
records and processes data resulting from business operations
transaction processing system
special sensing devices monitor and record physical phenomena such as temp and pressure changes
process control system
a computer based system that provides info and support to effective managerial decision making
management information system
the deployment of organizational resources to achieve strategic goals
set of formal tasks assigned to individuals and departments; formal reporting relationships; design of systems to ensure effective coordination of employees across depts
orgnization structure
-tasks are subdivided into ind. jobs
-work can be performed more efficiently
-employees become bored and isolated
work specialization
unbroken line of authority that links all persons in an organization an dshows who reports to whom
-associated with unity of command and scalar principle
chain of command
number of employees reporting to a supervisor; traditional view=7 per manager; today=30 or more
span of management
used in an organization; determines whether the structure is tall or flat
span of control
narrow span, more hierarchial levels
tall structure
wide span, fewer hierarchial levels
flat structure
decision authority is located near the top of org.
authority is pushed downward to lower organizational levels
5 approaches to structural design
vertical, divisional, matrix, team, network
team consists of employees from various functional depts
cross-functional teams
teams solve ongoing problems; come from all functional areas
permanent teams
firm subcontracts most of its major functions to seperate companies and coordinates their activites from a small headquarters organization
virtual network structure
temporary team or committee formed to solve a specific short-term problem
task force
participants from several departments who meet to solve ongoing problems
a person responsible for coordinating the activities of several depts
project manager
contingency factors that influence organization structure
Woodward's Manufacturing Technologyq
small batch unit production
large batch and mass production
continuous process production
a type of technology that involes the produciton of goods in batches of one or few products designed to customer specification
small batch unit production
type of technology characterized by the production of a large volume of products with the same specifications
large batch and mass production
a type of techonology involving mechanization of the entire work flow and nonstop production
continuous process production
the adoption of a new idea or behavior by an organization
organizational change
two types of planned change
incremental change
transformational change
based on efforts to improve basic work and organizational processes
incremental change
involves redesign and renewel of the total organization
transformational change
Change sequence of events
environmental forces and internal forces=>need for change=>initiate change=>implement change
based on external and internal forces; performance gap
need for change
a disparity between exisiting and desired performance levels
-current procedures are not up to standard
-new idea or technology could improve current performance
performance gap
2 elements of initiating change
a person who sees the need for and champions productive change within the organization
idea champion
promoting corporate innovation
-new venture teams
-idea incubator
facilitating of new ideas
-creative culture
-idea champions
-new venture teams
-idea incubators
4 reason for resistance to change
-self interest
-lack of understanding and trust
-different assessments and goals
the fear of personal loss is perhaps the biggest obstacle to organizational change
self interest
do not understand the intended purpose of a change, or distrust the intentions
lack of understanding and trust
lack of info about future events
people who will be affected by innovation may assess the situation differently
different assessments and goals
TYPES of organizational change
-related to organization's production process
-designed to enhance efficiency
-generally "bottom-up"
technology change
tools for changing people and culture tools
-training and dev. programs
-organizational development
the application of behavioral science techinques to improve an organization's health and effectiveness through its ability to cope with environmental changes, improve internal relationships, and increase learning and problem-solving capabilities
organizational development
organizational development can help managers address:
-organizational decline/revitalizatoin
-conflict management
diagnosis stage; participants are made aware of problems in order to increase their willingness to change their behavior
intervention stage; individuals experiment with new workplace behavior
reinforcement stage; individuals acquire a desired new skill or attitude and are rewarded for it by the organization
activities undertaken to attract, develop, and maintain an effective workforce within an organization
human resource management
strategic role of HRM
-all managers are HR managers
-employees are viewed as assets
-HRM is a matching process
how is HRM changing?
-focusing on building human capital
-use of information technology
the ecnomic value of the knowledge, experience, skills, and capabilities of employees
human capital
How to attract an effective workplace
-HR planning
-choose recruiting sources
-select the candidate
-welcome the new employee
How to develop an effective workplace
-on the job training
-orientation training
-self-directed/programmed instruction
-classroom training
computer based training
the process of observing and evaluating an employee's performance, recording the assessment,and providing feedback to the employee
performance appraisal
How to maintain an effective workforce
-compensation considerations
Compensation Considerations
-wage and salary systems
-compensation equity
-pay for performance
the belief that one's own group or subculture is inherently superior to other groups or cultures
a culture that accepts only one way of doing things and one set of values and beliefs
the belief that groups and subcultures are inherently equal
means that an organization accommodates several subcultures
5 types of sexual harassment
-solicitation with promise of reward
-coercion with threat of punishment
-sexual crimes and misdemenors
an interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of individuals, behavior, and performance in organizations
organizational behavior
work behavior that goes beyond job requirements and contributes as needed to the organization's success
organizational citizenship
a cognitive and affective evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way
3 components of attitude
includes the beliefs, opinons, and info the person has about the object of the attitude
cognitive component
the person's emotions or feelings about the object of the attitude
affective component
the person's intention to behave toward the object of the attitude in a certain way
behavioral component
2 high performance work attitudes
-job satisfaction
-organizational commitment
the cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing, and interpreting information from the environment
the perception process
observing info via the senses=>screening the ingo and selecting what to process=>organizing the selected data into patterns fro interpreting and response
primacy and recency
perceptual selectivity
sterotyping and halo effect
perceptual distortions
says the characteristics of the person led to the behavior
internal attributions
says something about the situation caused the person's behavior
external attributions
3 factors that determine whether the attribution will be external or internal
whether the behavior is unusual for that person
whether other people tend to respond to similar situations in the same way
whether the person being observed has a history of behaving in the same way
Big Five Personality Factors
-Emotional Stability
-Openness to Experience
EQ Basic Components
-relationship awareness
-social awareness
what poeople tend to attribute to the cause of their stress or failture
locus of control
locus of control: people are easier to motivate; believe their own actions influence what happens to them; feel in control of their fate
locus of control: believe events in their life happen because of luck, or chance; may feel helpless to change things; less in volved in jobs
to be concerned with power, status, and toughness; obey recognized authority; stick to conventional values
characterized by the acquisition of power and teh manipulation of other people for purely personal gain
Problem-solving styles-MBTI
experiential learning cycle
concrete experience
reflective observation
abstract conceptualizatoin
active experimentation
concrete and reflective; good at ideas, people, culture and art
abstract conceptualization and reflective; good at reasoning, less concerned with people
abstract and active; good at practical application of ideas, good with technical tasks
concrete and active; good at implementing decisions, good with people
people gain 12% of what they know from hearing; people with preference to learn by ear
auditory learners
people gain 76% of they know from reading; people with this preference
visual learners
people gain 13% of what they know from the senses; people with this preference
hands-on or kinesthetic learners
4 causes of work stress
-demands with job taks
-physical demands
-role demands
-interpersonal demands
the ability to influence people toward the attainment of organizational goals
________takes care of where you are
______takes you to a new place
leadership behaviors
contingency approaches to leadership
-Fiedler's Contingency Theory
-Hersey and Blandhard's Situation Theory
-Path-Goal Theory
leadership grid
1-9 x 1-9
x=concern for production
y=concern for people
3 elements of leadership situations in Fiedler's Contingency Thoery
-leader member relations
-task structure
-position power
refers to group atmostphere and members' attitude toward and acceptance of the leader
leader member relations
refers to the extent to which tasks performed by the group are defined, involve specific procedures, and have clear, explicit goals
task structure
the extent to which the leader has formal authority over subordinates
position power
a contingency approach to leadership that links the leader's behavior style with the task readiness of subordinates
Situational Theory
levels of readiness
very high-delegating
contingency approach, the leader's responsibility is to increase subordinates' motivation to attain personal organizational goals through:
-clarifying the paths to rewards
-increasing the rewards that the subordinate values and desires
Path-Goal Theory
Path-Goal Classification of Leader Behaviors
-achievement oriented
2 important situation contingencies (Path-Goal)
-the personal characteristics of group members
-the work environment
-the ability to inspire
-motivate people to do more
-tend to be less predictable
-create atmosphere of change
charismatic leader
-clarify the role and task requirements
-initate structure
-provide appropriate rewards
transactional leader
3 forms of power
power coming from a management position
legitimate power
stems from the authority to bestow rewards on other people
reward power
the authority to punish or recommend punishment
forms of personal power
leader's special knowledge or skill regarding the taks performed by followers
expert power
personality characteristics that command subordinates' identification, respect, and admiration so they wish to emulate the leader
servant and level 5 leaders have ______ in common
3 steps in fair process
-expectation clarity
refers to the forces either internal or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action
high employee motivation goes hand in hand with ____________
high performance
Model of Motivation
types of rewards
satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular action
reward given by another person
4 Content Theories of Motivation
-Hierarchy of Needs Theory
-ERG Theory
-Two-Factor Theory
-Acquired Needs Theory
5 steps of Hierachy of Needs (bottom-top)
-physiological needs
-safety needs
-belongingness needs
-esteem needs
-self-actualizatoin needs
ERG Theory (bottom-top)
-existence needs
-relatedness needs
-growth needs
Two-Factor Theory (bottom-top)
-Hygiene factors(influence level of dissatisfaction)
-Motivators(influence level of satisfaction)
Acquired Needs Theory (bottom-top)
-Need for Achievment
-Need for Affiliation
-Need for Power
explain how employees select behaviors with which to meet their needs and determine whether their choices were successful
process theories
focuses on individuals' perceptions of how fairly they are treated compared with others; motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they expect for performance
Equity Theory
motivation depends on expectations about ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards; based on effort, performance, and desirability of outcomes
Expectancy Theory
theory proposes specific,challenging goals increases motivation and performance when goals are accepted by subordinates and these subordinates receive feedback to indicate progress
Goal Setting Theory
Reinforcement Tools
-positive reinforcement
-avoidenve learning
removal of an unpleasant consequence following a desired behavior
avoidance learning
withdrawl of positive reward; behavior is no longer reinforced and hence is less likely to occur in the future
schedules of reinforcement
-fixed interval(weekly paycheck)
-fixed ratio(piece rate pay system)
-variable interval(perf. appraisal given at random)
-variable ratio(sales bonus tied to # of sales)
3 types of job design
-job simplification
-job rotation
-job enlargement
the systematic process of regulating organizational activities to make them consistent with the expectations established in plans, targets, and standards of performance
organizational control
3 types of organizational control
-feed forward
-anticipates problems
-focus is on inputs
feed forward control
-solves problems as they happen
-ongoing process
concurrent control
-solves problems after they occur
-focuses on outputs
feedback control
Feedback Control Model
Establish strategic goals=>establish standards of performance=>measure actual performance=>compare performance to standards=>(if adequate)=>do nothing or provide reinforcement=>(if inadequate)=>take corrective action
"If you can't measure it, you can't _______ it."
Measurement is essential for a company to known ______________, assign personnel, which projects to promote or leae
where to spend money
the process of setting targets for an organization's expenditures, monitoring results and comparing them to the budget, and measuring changes as needed
budgetary control
4 types of budgetary control
changing from a ___________ control to a _____________ control
bureaucratic; decentralized
the organization's output of goods and services divided by its inputs
maximum output with minimum input
-cut waste
-improve quality
-improving productivity
lean manufacturing
represents the best measure of how the organization is diong
total factor productivity
considers productivity with respect to certain outputs
partial productivity
Total Factor Productivity Equation
Output/Labor dollars
Labor productivity formula
a decentralized approach to control
-infuse quality into every activity
-target of zero defects
-focus on teamwork, increasing customer satisfaction, and lowering costs
-collaboration encouraged
Total Quality Management (TQM)
TQM techniques
-quality circles
-benchmarking w/analysis
-six sigma principles
-standard for reduced cycle time
-continuous improvement
a company's net (after taxes) operating profit minus the cost of capital invested in the company's tangible assets
Economic Value Added (EVA)
-help managers focus on key performance measures and communicate them throughout
-balances traditional financial measures with measures of____
The Balanced Scorecard
elements of the balanced scorecard
-customer service
-learning and growth
-internal business processes