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673 Cards in this Set

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Acceptance
favorable reaction to change in which an employee cooperates w/ mgnt's req. in support of the change, but doesn't work enthusiastically to effect it
Acceptance theory of authority
the source of authority is the person who is influenced, not the person who influences
accountability
the obligation of an employee to be judged according to the competence with which the employee fulfills responsibility
achievement-oriented leadership
leadership style that emphasizes excellence, establishes challenging goals and performance standards, and expresses confidence in subordinates'ability to reach goals
across-the-board-raise
usually a percentage-of-salary increase given to all employees redardless of their performance
action plans
plans that result from operational planning
action points
times or events which signal a manager that an original plan is not appropriate and that a contingency plan should be implemented
activities
in a plan, the tasks and approaches that will be implemented in order to reach goals
adhocracy
an organizational form that typically develops in complex, dynamic environments with advanced technology and unspecialized tasks
affirmative action
a systematic plan to seek, hire, promote and retain minority group members if such persons are underrepresented in a firm
alternation ranking method
perf. evaluation method that requires a manager first to list the most competent employee and then to list the least competent one, according to a specified behavior or group of behaviors. Next, 2nd most competent and 2nd least competent,...
application form
means for a job applicant to supply an org. with relevant info concerning education, work experience, personal background and references
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
system that emulates the thinking, learning and judging abilities of humans
assessment center
process by which a group of managers provide a group of job candidates with a 2 to 3 day stimulation of work exercises
attendance incentive plan
provision of additional pay or vacation time for the number of days less than a specified number of days that an employee is not absent from work.
authority
the right to perform an action or not to perform an action, as well as the right to direct someone else to perform an action or not to perform it
authority gap
situation in which no one is responsible for accomplishing specific organizational activities
authority overlap
situation in which 2 or more individuals or subunits have been assigned authority and responsibility for accomplishing the same organizational activities
autocratic leadership style
a leadership style that includes a tendency to make most decisions without consulting subordinates
automation
process of using machines to perform all or nearly all aspects of a work function
average reserve system
a computerized system used to establish claim reserves
avoidance
a conflict management techinque in which a person does nothing about a conflict, refuses to answer questions or denies that a problem exists in hopes that the conflict will somehow disappear
avoidance learning
performance of a desired behavior in order to avoid an anticipate negative consequence
balance sheet
a financial doc that shows an org's assets, liabilities and owners' equity at a specific point in time
balance sheet budget
budget that presents a forecast of the level of an org's assets and liabilities provided that the org's other budgets are met
behavioral design
an approach to organizational design which notes that the bureaucratic structure should be ammended to reduce the degree of formality and to include employees in the decison making
behavioral management theory
a theory of management that focuses on concern for employees' social and phychological well-being
behavioral model of decision making
a model that describes the ways in which most managers make decisions
behavioral modeling
process by which trainees watch ineffective or effective work-related behaviors in performances by live personnel, by videotape or by other means
behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
a type of graphic rating scale that provides a numerical value for each increment of observable behavior as specified by job analysis
bill of material
detailed list of all materials req to make a product or to deliver a service
bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)
genuine, job-related trait needed for an employee to perform a certain type of work
bonus
a one-time payment for a job performance, generally considered a short-term incentive for performance
bottom-up approach
an approach to organizational change in which lower-level employees act as intrapreneures for their own depts or divisions, and use their expertise to recommend technological improvements
bottom-up budgeting
a budget-setting approach that requires managers to prepare their own departmental budgets for approval by upper-level managers
bounded rationality
concept that a person has limited ability to be rational or logical
brainstorming
a qualitative technique for generating alternatives or solutions without analyzing or criticizing any of them
breakeven analysis
procedure used to identify the point at which funds spent (cost of production) and funds received(revenues) will be equal for a specified product, service or approach
breakeven point
the moment at which the profit and the loss of an element are exactly the same
budget
a single use plan stipulating the financial resources designated for certain activities that are to be accomplished within a set period of time
budget committee
a committee made up of senior managers from several functional areas to provide budgetary data and guidance to lower-level managers
budget variance
the difference between planned and actual amounts of expenses and income
budget worksheet
a budget setting aid that outlines budget categories used within an org and that provides space for a manager to figure allocations for each category
budgeting
the process of establishing budgets
bureaucracy
an org structure according to a rational plan, with well-defined positions, a clear division of labor, and a clear chain of authority
business games
simulations of realistic organizational situations or problems in which trainees fulfill certain roles or are assigned to make decisions according to information presented to them
business-unit strategic plan
a strategic plan that outlines the operations of one line of business
cafeteria plan
a range of benefits from which each employee can select the benefits that best suit his or her lifestyle or preference
capacity planning
forecasting the demand for various forms and types of products and services, determining how fully an org can meet the level of demand, and, if necessary, evaluating the arranging for supplementary means of fulfilling demand in excess of what the org currently is able to meet
capital assets
major assets such as buildings, large equipment, heavy machinery and land
capital expenditures budget
a budget that includes anticipated expenses for acquiring such major assets as buildings, large equipment, heavy machinery and land
career
a series of job tasks and positions held during a person's working lifetime
career anchors
a group of values, motives, and abilities that guide a person's career
career development
the career-related activities that an employee undertakes in order to develop skills, to id strategies, and to realized his or her potential as fully as possible
career ladder
a specific and formal progression of jobs that are linked one to another and that lead toward upper-level responsibilities within an org
career path
a route of job progression along which an employee is able to advance systematically through an org
career plateau
a career level from which an employee is unlikely to be promoted or to move upward in the organizational hierarchy
case reserve
an estimate of the amount of money that is needed to pay a claim
case studies
an off-the-job training technique in which conditions and problems are described to a trainee, who must then evaluate the situations and offer solutions
cash-flow budget
a budget which provides projections of incoming cash flows in order for an org to be certain that it has sufficient cash to meet its ongoing financial obligations
cash-flow statement
statement that notes the sources of cash or other funds and disbursements of those funds
causal modeling
a procedure that closely examines past events in assessing cause-and-effect relationships and in making predictions which include the probable effects of changes in any variable
central tendency error
an evaluation error in which an evaluator tends to avoid the high and low ends of a rating scale and gives most employee performance ratings in the middle of a scale
centralization
concentration of authority and power at top organizational levels
certainty
a condition which indicates that a decision maker has been able to gather all the info req to make a specific decision
chain
a communication network that involves communication flowing from one person directly to another person, and thence to a third person, and so on
chain of command
the unbroken line of authority that connects all organization employees
change agent
a person or group that is given responsibility for leading an org through a planned change
changing
in the Lewin model of change, the implementation of a desired transformation and the decision as to whether the change produces effective behavior or results
channel
a means of trasmitting encoded meaning
circle
a communication network that enables each member of the network to transfer info directly to 2 other members of the network
claim appraisal codes
numerical listings of correct and incorrect actions relating to claim handling
claim department
an organizational structure that functions to consider and handle claims
claim generalist
a claim examiner whose assigned responsibilities cover a broad spectrum and whose training is generalized
claim manager
the person responsible for directing the activities of the claim department
claim philosophy
a company's attitude toward processing and paying claims
claim specialist
a claim examiner whose assigned responsibilities fall within a narrow range and whose training is specialized
classical design
an approach to organizational design which defines universal principles and determines specific approaches that could be used to guide the design of organizations
classical management theory
a theory focused on discovering logical, rational techniques to increase the efficiency of an org's production of goods and services
classical model of decision making
a model based on the assumptions that the best decision in any situation is one that is economically sound for the org, strives to fulfill stated, well defined organizational objectives, is based on logic and reason, and is made under conditions of certainty
classical departmentalization
the grouping of work activities according to the need to respond to certain clients or categories of clients
closed recruitment
a recruitment process that allows a manager to choose, from current employees, the type of persons, and sometimes the specific individual, whom the manager wants to fill a vacant position
closed system
a system that does not interact with its environment
cluster
a grapevine communication pattern that is produced as persons pass on info to the co-workers in their cluster of friends and acquaintances, usually in a fairly predictable order
coaching
a specialized career development activity that provides an employee with an opportunity to spend time working with a manager whom the employee is being prepared to replace
coercion
forcing employees to accept a change by threatening to fire them, to transfer them to undesirable locations, or to give them poor performance evaluations
coercive power
power that is based on a leader's ability to punish another person
cognitive test
a type of employment test that evaluates candidates' ability to learn and reason
cohesiveness
the tendency of group members to feel loyal to one another, to want to remain in the group, to want to preserve the group, and to resist the influences of non-members
collectivity stage
the stage of the org life cycle in which a rapidly growing org creates some departments or divisions and establishes some regulations, but generally remains informal
command group
a functional group made up of managers and their subordinates
commission plan
a compensation plan in which an employee's pay is based on the quantity of products and services sold or produces
commitment
agreement with a leader's viewpoint and a willingness to fulfill a leader's expectations
communication
the transmission of information from one person to another person, or from one group or department to another
comparable worth
a concept which focuses on the question of equitable pay given for jobs that may differ in content, but that require comparable skills, abilities, and knowledge
compliance
acceptance of a leader's direction, although not with enthusiasm
compressed workweek
a type of job scheduling in which employees are generally scheduled for fewer work days and longer periods of work time each day
compromise
a method of reducing or resolving conflict that involves achieving consent by having each party make concessions to the other
computer-based training (CBT)
training that uses a computer terminal and monitor to present facts, problems, or questions to a participant
computerized spreadsheet
a tool that allows creation of matrix structure and performance of mathematical operations on stored data
concurrent control
a type of control that measures and evaluates an activity in progress to assess how consistent the activity is with performance standards
conference method
an off-the-job training technique that requires trainees to participate in small groups, with a trainer present to provide feedback and guidance, but not to take charge of the conference
conflict
any type of opposition or antagonistic interaction between 2 or more parties
consensus
a method of reducing or resolving conflict that involves discovering a resolution which is best in the situation, rather than trying to allow one side to win
consideration
the concern that a leader shows for developing a warm, trusting, and supportive work atmosphere for subordinates
consolidation
the combination of 2 companies in order to form a 3rd company
consultant
an industry expert who is not a member of a particular org and who has no vested interest in any aspect or division of that org
content plateau
a plateau in which an employee has learned every aspect of a current job, with the result that work activities may become routine and unchallenging
content theories of motivation
theories that focus on understanding people's underlying needs and the ways those needs energize and motivate people to act in certain ways
content validity
a type of test validity determined by the degree to which a test's contents reflect the actual content or requirements of a job
contingency approach to management
a management approach that assesses various options and matches a chosen solution with the demands of a specific situation
contingency design
a flexible organizational design approach that considers the variables present in a specific situation and the effects of various solutions to management problems
contingency plan
a course of action that can be taken if certain, usually undesirable, events occur
continuous schedule of reinforcement
reinforcement of a behavior everytime it is shown
contract manager
a leased senior-level employee who oversees a specific facet of a co's operations for a certain period of time
control system
a series of procedures or steps that an org uses in order to monitor organizational activities and to correct deviations or flaws
control tools
procedures or techniques that permit managers to measure an org's progress toward its objectives and to make appropriate corrections
controlling
a process of monitoring and correcting the progress of an org toward its stated objectives
co-optation
the disarming of resistant employees by absorbing them into a group and by giving a key resister a position of leadership so as to defuse animosity
coordinating
defined by Henri Fayol as the process of establishing harmonious relationships between the resources and the activities of an org to ensure that the org reaches its desired goals
coordination
a process of integrating various functions of interdependent subunits within an org so that those subunits may work together smoothly
core benefits
the nonoptional benefits that are provided by an employer and that every employee must accept
core job dimensions
the components - skill variety, task identity, task significance, task autonomy, and job feedback-that are necessary for positive results in a job
corporate-level strategic plan
a strategic plan which outlines and coordinates the operations of an org that contains 2 or more lines of business
counseling
the act of providing nonevaluative, constructive feedback to individuals
criterion validity
a type of test validity determined by the degree to which people who perform well on the test also perform will on a job and the degree to which people who do poorly on the test also do poorly on the job
critical incidents
a method of job analysis in which only the work behaviors that result in successful or unsuccessful job performances are noted
critical path
in a PERT or CPM network, the sequence of in-series activities that require the longest completion time and that provide for no slack time
critical path method(CPM)
a work scheduling technique in which a manager plots out the essential steps to complete a project
critical psychological states
frame of mind resulting from the presence in a job of each of the core job dimensions; these state include meaningfulness of work, responsibility for work outcomes, and knowledge of work results
culture
the underlying norms, values, attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge shared by the persons associated with an org
cutback
the intentional withdrawal of organizational resources in order to adapt to a business environment that is no longer favorable
cybernetic control system
a self-regulating system which has built-in devices that provide immediate feedback to a system and that automatically correct deviations from a systems's desired objectives and activities
data
raw facts, figures, and events that have not yet been analyzed, summarized, or otherwise organized
data management
the org, arrangement, review, and access of data and info by using a computer
debt ratio
a type of leverage ratio that is calculated by dividing the org's total liability by its total assets
decentralization
a method of org in which authority and power are passed down from top organizational levels to successively lower positions in the org
decision confirmation
the tendency of a decision maker to settle on a decision early in the decision-making process and then to spend the remaining time in justifying the decision rather than in analyzing additional info, revising conclusions, and diligently seeking alternatives
decision making
the process by which a person analyzes available alternatives and chooses a course of action in responding to a specific situation
decision package
detailed data about an activity's expenses, revenues, benefits, limitations and other info that will enable managers to compare each activity to other proposed activities and to decide the merits of each activity
decision support system (DSS)
an interactive, computer-based system that permits users to access and manipulate info and to generate reports using info not routinely available thru an MIS
decision tree
a qualitative decision-making technique that can assist a manager in evaluating alternatives when decision must be made in sequence
decline stage
stage of the org life cycle in which an org is no longer able to produce what it was designed to produce, to service what is was designed to service, and to adapt successfully to changes in its environment
decoding
the translation of a transmitted message back into meaning, which may or may not be the same meaning as that originally encoded and transmitted by the sender
delagating
in situational leadership, a leadership style in which a manager neither instructs employees on how to do a job nor provides a great deal of emotional support and approval for them
delegation
the assignment to another person or group of formal authority for carrying out specific activities
Delphi Process
a means of managing group decision making and forecasting by developing a consensus
democratic leadership style
a leadership style that includes a tendency to allow subordinates to take part in making decisions
demotion
the act of moving an employee to a lower level of the organizational hierarchy
departmentalization
the grouping of similar or related work functions - jobs, activities, or processes - into units, and those units into larger units
dependability test
a type of employment test that evaluates candidates' job-related attitudes and values
descriptive model
a management science model that describes events as they exist at a given time, but does not present an optimal action
development
activity directed toward learning and improving the skills needed for future job performance
devil's advocate
a person who challenges a group's decision-making process and strongly presents unpopular or minority opinions
diagonal communication
a type of formal communication that takes place between persons who occupy different horizontal and vertical levels of an organization
differentiation
a tendency towards fragmentation that creates barriers among the employees and the divisions of an org
direct supervision
one means of achieving vertical coordination
discharge
the dismissal of an employee who does not otherwise wish to leave an organization
discipline
a process of managing employee performance so that employees are encouraged to adhere to organizational rules and procedures
disparate impact
discrimination that results when any employment procedure, althought applied uniformly, causes a large proportion of job candidates of a protected class to be elimated from consideration
disparate treatment
discrimination that can result from the creation and application of rules based on sex, race, age, national origin, or other protected factors
dissonance reduction
the tendency of a decision maker to reduce feelings of emotional disturbance after a decision has been reached by ignoring or forgetting potential risks and uncertainties concerning the decision, and not to monitor the results carefully and thoroughly
divestiture
the sale of a division or department to another company
divisionalized form
an organizational form that usually requires large numbers of middle managers who are given broad decision-making authority within their own division
driving forces
the influences that encourage a change to occur
dysfunctional conflict
conflict that produces resistance to change, as well as highly charged emotions, political infighting and maneuvering, decreased production, and lack of cohesiveness and cooperation among an org's employees and work units
econometric model
a series of regression equations solved simultaneously in order to predict large-scale economic changes and the impact of those changes on an organization
economic order quantity (EOQ)
a mathematical model that enables a decision maker to calculate the optimal amount of inventory to order.
effectiveness
the quality of taking the correct steps and performing the proper actions to reach organizational objectives
employee-centered leader behavior
leadership behavior that pays attention to the human aspects and job satisfaction of employees and that involves them in setting and reaching performance goals
employee privacy
the right of employees to be protected from unwanted disclosure of personal information
employee stock option plan(ESOP)
an employee benefit where an org's employees are able to buy shares of stock in the org
encoding
the transformation of meaning into a form that can be communicated
entrepreneurial stage
the stage of the org life cycle that features creativity and gathering resources
environment
any elements in a system's surroundings that might affect the system's functioning or activities
equal employment opportunity (EEO)
Legal requirements for non-discriminatory treatment that apply to almost all public and private organizations
equal pay for equal work
the payment of equal wages for the performance of jobs that require equal skills, responsibility and effort, and that are performed under similar working conditions in the same establishment
equity theory
a theory which states that people feel motivated to perform when they belive that their rewards are fair in relation to the rewards given other people
error of irrelevant judgment
an evalulation error in which an evaluator makes unwarranted, often unconscious, assumptions and judgments about an employee's perf because of the employee's sex, age, race, religion, length of employment, previous perf, political viewpoint, appearance, personality, or some other characteristic or quality that is unrelated to the empolyee's work activities
event
In PERT or CPM network, a specific goal that represents the point at which one or more activities has been accomplished
exception report
a report that calls to a manager's attention deviations either above or below the established levels of deviation from a performance standard
existence needs
according to Alderfer's hierarchy, a person's needs for material and physical entities
existence-relatedness-growth (ERG)theory
Alderfer's content theory of motivation, focused on 3 kinds of needs grouped into a hierarchy
exit interview
a meeting in which a manger or HR unit member questions a departing employee about working conditions and about ways of improving problem areas
expectancy
the event or outcome that a person expects to happen as the result of a certain behavior
expectancy theory
a theory which states that a person is motivated in proportion to that person's expectations of success in a task or opportunity and desire to accomplish the task or develop the opportunity
expense budget
the forecasted costs of production in an organization
expert power
power derived from a person's information, knowledge, and expertise
expert system(ES)
an information-manipulating system based on established facts and on historical reactions and responses to situations
external audit
a process of employing an auditor from outside an org to evaluate the org's financial records
external recruitment
the process of seeking job candicates from outside an organization
extinction
ignoring an unwanted behavior or withdrawing a desired reward or consequence of that behavior
extrinsic reward
a payoff that a person receives from the other persons or from an organization
feedback
communication sent in response to the sender of a message
feedback control
a type of control that assesses the results of a completed activity, determines the causes of deviations from organizational standards or goals, and applies the findings to plan for future activities
financial audit
an independent assessment of an org's financial accounts and statements
financial budget
a budget that presents an org's projected resources of income and the org's plans for spending the income
financial ratio
a ratio that compares the numbers in 2 sets of financial results
financial resources
a type of organizational resource consisting of the funds used to pay for both the immediate and the long-term operations of an organization
financial statements
financial control tools that enable an org to evaluate its financial performance and to assess the org's flow of goods and services
fixed costs
expenses that are not expected to change during the budget period regardless of the amount of business transacted or, in the claims area, the number of claims handled
fixed interval schedule of reinforcement
a response of behavior at regular, predictable times- at the same times each day, for instance, or on the 15th of each month
fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement
a response to every "nth" behavior -every 7th, or 50th behavior, for instance
flat organization
an org in which there are few managerial levels between top-level and bottom-level employees
flexible budget
a budget that includes fixed and variable costs and the circumstances under which variable costs would be expected to change
flextime
a type of job scheduling that permits employees to select their work hours in accordance with their personal preferences
focused audit
an analysis of claims that are selected by claim type, claim disposition, benefit application, group policy, or other specifically identified criteria, without regard to the individual employees who handled the claims
force field analysis
a model of change which states that change results from the competition between 2 types of forces: driving forces and restraining forces
forecast reports
predictions based on the use of predictive models that focus on specific organizational problems and opportunities
forecasting
the process of making organizational and environmental predictions based on available information
formal authority theory
a management theory that authority exists because some person or group has conferred it on the person holding the authority
formal group
a group, including appointed or official leaders, that is created in order to produce work
formal organization
the established org structures, including functional, product, client, territorial, process, time, project, hybrid, matrix, network
formalization and control stage
the stage of the org life cycle in which an org has grown large and the orginizational form is more bureaucratic than it was in earlier stages, with more prescribed rules and regulations and a definite hierarchy of relationships
friendship group
a type of informal group that evolves because its members enjoy each other's company
frustration regression
the act of falling back to focus on lower-level needs instead of continuing to try to satisfy upper-level needs
full support
a favorable reaction to change in which an employee provides leadership for other employees in implementing a change
functional authority
the right of an employee to determine other employees' or departments' tasks and activities that are related to the employee's responsibilities
functional conflict
conflict that tends to encourage creativity, effective decision making, and increased effort and production, and to aid the personal development and
job-related maturity of persons within an organization
functional departmentalization
the grouping of work that has common functions or similar activities
function foremanship
a distince division of labor between management and workers, with managers taking responsibility for planning the work and determining workers' job assignments; proposed by Frederick W. Taylor
functional-level strategic plan
a basis for managing the operations of a specific division or department within an organization
game theory
a theory which helps a decision maker to make predictions about the effects of an org's actions on that org's competitors and especially to predict the actions that competitors will take in response
Gantt chart
a graphic scheduling technique that enables a manager to plan and control production; developed by Henry L. Gantt
glossary of budget terms
a document that lists and defines budget-related terms used within an organization
goal acceptance
the degree to which a person agrees that a certain goal is his or her own responsibility
goal assignment
the act of specifying a goal as the responsibility of a certain unit or individual
goal commitment
the degree to which a person is determined to accomplish a certain goal
goal displacement
the establishment of easily quantified, but less important goals instead of less quantifiable, but more important goals
goal theory
a theory which states that an org can motivate employees by setting certain types of goals for them
goals
the conditions or targets that a manager expects to reach
gossip
a grapevine communication pattern that is produced when one individual selects other people and passes info to each of them, one at a time
grapevine
a communication network that is the primary means of informal communication
graphic rating scale
a series of performance standards accompanied by a scale on which an employee is to be rated
grievance procedure
a means by which employees can report on-the-job problems and can receive prompt, adequate assistance with them
group
2 or more persons who have a shared identity or purpose
groupthink
a tendency to hurry toward compromise or consensus instead of taking the time to devise the best possible solution
growth needs
according to Alderfer's hierarchy, a person's needs for competence, personal growth, creativity, and development of potential
guaranteed piecework plan
a plan that provides a specified and guaranteed minimum amount of compensation for an employee who produces a specified number of units or items within a certain period of time
halo error
an evaluation error in which an evaluator allows an employee's high or low performance in one area to influence the ratings given for the other areas in a performance appraisal
hardware
a computer's physical components, including electronic circuits, memory, input/output devices, and devices for storing information
Hawthorne effect
workers feel a strong incentive to increase their productivity when they perceive that managers are paying special attention to the workers and are concerned about the workers' well-being
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's hypothesis of motivation that includes 5 levels of human needs, arranged in a hierarchy
hierarchy of relationships
the ways in which every employee in the org is linked to other employees and to the org's chief executive officer
high power distance
a high degree of inequality among levels, departments, and employees in an organization
high specialization
characteristic of a job in which an individual focuses on one or a small number of organizational tasks
high uncertainty avoidance
the preference among employees for specific instructions and definite goals and procedures rather than an unstructured, unpredictable work environment
holding costs
the expenses associated with handling, storing, and financing materials
horizontal communication
a type of formal communication that flows between groups or individuals who are on the same level of the organizational hierarchy
horizontal coordination
integration between units or on one hierarchial level of an organization
human relations movement
a movement that encourages managers to be responsive to the needs of employees
human resource management
the process of developing and following a comprehensive approach in order to meet an org's present and futher staffing needs
human resource planning
a process by which an org develops a strategy for providing adequate numbers of employees to fill the org's present and future needs
human resources
a type of organizational resource consisting of the managerial talent and the labor of persons employed withing an org, as well as consultants, investigators, and other people from outside the organization
hybrid control
a type of control that enables a manager to evaluate various aspects of work at different stages in a production process
hygiene factors
the elements that satisfy hygiene needs, including the pleasantness of the workspace, the working conditions, the co-workers and social interactions, the supervisors, job safety and security, and pay, benefits, and other rewards
hygiene needs
needs that are present in experiences in which people do not feel motivated to perform especially well
image processing
using a scanning process to transfer the image of a paper document into electronic data
immediate implementation
the change from a current MIS to a new MIS at a given moment or on a given day - or, if no system was in place, beginning operation of an MIS at a given point
in-basket test
a work sample test in which a job candidate is given the contents of an in-basket - letters, memos, telephone messages, reports, and other items - and is allowed a limited time, usually 1 or 2 hours, in which to handle each of the items in an appropriate way
incident method
an off-the-job training technique that is similar to the case studies method, but offers a trainee only an outline of a situation without including necessary details
income statement
a summary of an org's financial conditions and the amount of profit or loss over a period of time, such as a month, a quarter or a year
inconsistent evaluation
a performance evaluation error that occurs with terms on an evaluation form are not precisely defined, so that various evaluators render differing judgments of employees performing at the same level
incrementalizing
making a minor revision in an existing attribute, approach, or procedure, rather than approaching a problem or an opportunity from the viewpoint of gathering broad-based info and developing the best resolution, regardless of how much or how little that resolution resembles the existing situation
individual-group conflict
conflict that results when one person is opposed to or is opposed by the standards or goals of a work group, such as a team, a committee, or a department
influence
the ability to effect desired changes in people and situations; may be accomplished by exercising authority, by exercising power, or by interacting effectively with other people even in the absence of authority or power
informal group
a group that evolves spontaneously within an organization in order to satisfy needs for friendship and esteem
informal organization
the unofficial relationships that result from the individual and group needs of organizational members
information
the result of data analysis processes that render data meaningful and usable
information resources
a type of organizational resource consisting of data organized or processed into information that can be used to gain knowledge and to make decisions
initiating structure
the degree to which a leader organizes the work activities that lead toward a goal and then specifies what each group member shall do in helping to reach the goal
input
any information or element that can enter or that can be entered into a system (or, in a closed system, that already exists within a system)
integrated command authority
authority that enables each of several employees to report to his or her usual supervisor and to another supervisor in charge of a project or job
integrating manager
a manager who serves full-time to coordinate the activities of several interdependent work areas
integration
a tendency toward standardization, cooperation, and collaboration among the employees and the divisions of an organization
interdependence
the degree to which subunits rely on each other for the resources and info required to perform each subunit's respective work tasks
interest group
a type of informal group that generally develops because the member share a common interest such as a hobby or game, sport, political concern, or community activity
intergroup conflict
conflict that occurs when 2 or more groups within an org come into conflict with each other
inter-individual conflict
conflict produced when 2 or more persons in an organization oppose each other
intermittent schedule of reinforcement
reinforcement that provides approval or disapproval for performance from time to time or from action to action
internal audit
a process of using an org's own employees to evaluate the org's financial records
internal recruitment
the process of searching among the current employees of an org for candidates to fill jobs
interorganizational conflict
conflict produced when an org comes into conflict with other organizations
inter-role conflict
a conflict that occurs when a person who fills several roles both inside and outside an org cannot fulfill all the demands of those roles
intersender conflict
conflict that results when the orders sent from one individual or org conflict with the orders from another individual or group
intervention
a planned action that can correct an observed deficiency and that can effect a desired behavioral change within org members
intrapreneur
a person who recognizes a needed change within an org and takes steps to design and implement that change
intrasender conflict
conflict which results when one person gives incompatible orders to another
intrinsic reward
a payoff that is experienced internally and that a person gives to himself or herself
inventory
the equipment and supplies kept on hand in order to perform needed work processes
inventory control
a process of ascertaining optimal levels of each type of item in an org's inventory and maintaining inventory at those levels
inventory model
a model that aids a manager in establishing optimal levels of inventory to maintain
inventory record file
info concerning each item held in an org's inventory - its cost, location, degree of readiness to be used, and so on
job
a group of responsibilities for which one person is accountable
job aid
a checklist, procedure guide, manual, or other item used for reference at work
job analysis
the process of systematically collecting and evaluating information about jobs
job-centered leader behavior
leadership behavior that monitors, controls, and supervises employees, using legitimate, reward, and coercive power
job characteristics model
an approach to job design which states that a job can be evaluated according to five core job dimensions, which then theoretically produce critical psychologic states affecting employees' attitudes and work performance
job depth
the degree to which an employee can influence work tasks and can plan and control various aspects of those tasks
job description
a written summary of the tasks, responsibilities, and accountabilities expected of a person who holds a specific job , as well as of the education, experience, and skills that the employee needs
job design
the process of specifying the content of a job
job enlargement
the process of adding a larger number of work tasks to a job
job enrichment
the process of providing an employee with greater degree of self-management, enabling the employee to assume greater responsibility and authority, as well as increased task autonomy
job evaluation
a process of evaluating the relative responsibilities and the relative worth of various jobs for compensation purposes
job feed back
the degree to which a job permits an employee to receive direct, immediate information about work performance
job forecasting
a process that enables an org to evaluate information about future staffing requirements and jobs, and to make both long-term and short-term predictions about staffing needs
job posting
the announcement of vacant positions by publicizing the availability of a job and its characteristics adn requirements to all current employees in an organization
job rotation
a method of on-the-job training that involves moving an employee from one job to another at regular intervals in order to enable the employee to develop expertise in a variety of jobs
job scope
the number of activities included in a certain job and the frequency with which each activity is repeated
job sharing
a type of job scheduling which involves dividing a full-time position into 2 or more part-time positions that are filled by 2 or more employees
job specification
a brief summary of the experience, skills, credentials and personal qualities and traits required of a person holding a certain job
junior boards
a process of gathering a group of management trainees into a 'junior' board of directors, whose purpose is to learn management skills and, as a group, to make specific recommendations on top-level actions affecting an organization
just-in-time (JIT)
a system which attempts to reduce the amount of inactive inventory that an org keeps in storage for future orders
laissez-faire leadership style
a leadership style in which a manager does not become involved in the work processes or in directing employees
lateral transfer
the act of moving an employee from one position in an org to another position at the same level of the hierarchy
law of effect
the basic assumption that underlies the reinforcement theory of motivation; states that people tend to repeat behavior which has produced desireable effects and to avoid or to inhibit behavior which has produced undesirable effects
layoff
a type of separation that results when an org has no work for an employee to perform and expects to recall the employee when work becomes available
leader match training
a training program that is designed to help managers fit their leadership style to the requirements of specific task situations
leadership
the processs of influencing other people to attain specified goals
leadership continuum
defined by Tannenbaum and Schmidt as behaviors ranging from authoritarian behavior to participative behavior
leadership substitute
any element that negates the need for leadership
leading
a process of directing and influencing the work of others and of motivating them to perform at their highest level of capability in attaining organizational objectives
learning objectives
specific statements of the desired outcomes or results of training and development activities
leased workers
temporary employees obtained through an employment-leasing agency
lecture method
training that involves persenting info to employees who attend class sessions
legitimate power
power that is created when a subordinate acknowledges a leader's right to exercise power
leverage ratio
a ratio used to determine the amount of debt incurred by an org and the org's ability to pay its long-term debt obligations
Lewin model of change
a change model stating that the process of permanent change includes 3 sequential steps termed unfreezing, changing and refreezing
life and career planning
a self-analysis of strengths and weaknesses, along with discussions with a career counselor of the job-related ways in which an individual may take advantage of strengths and minimize weaknesses
line authority
direct authority exercised over subordinates
line positions
positions lying directly on the chain of command, beginning with the person or group at the top of an org's hierarch of relationships
linear programming
a management science model used to determine the optimal location of resources among competing areas of an org so as to reach specified goals and objectives
linking pin roles
important, flexible communication conduits among various levels and groups of an organization
liquidation
the closing down of all organizational activities, converting all of the org's assets to cash, and using the cash to pay as many of the org's creditors as possible
liquidity
an org's ability to sell or otherwise convert its assets into cash quickly without loss of income or principal
liquidity ratio
a ratio used to assess an org's ability to pay its current obligations as they become due
loss ratio
used in group insurance to identify the portion of income (earned prem) used to pay benefits to insureds (incurred claims);figured by dividing incurred claims by earned premium
low power distance
a high degree of equality among organizational areas and employees in an org
low specialization
characteristic of a job involving many, varying organizational tasks
low uncertainty avoidance
tolerance among employees of unstructure, unpredictable work situation and generalized, indefinite procedures and goals
machine bureaucracy
an organizational form that is best suited to a simple, stable environment; includes a large technostructure and support staff, rigid patterns of authority, a high degree of work specialization, and narrow spans of management
maintenance schedule
a type of schedule which specifies the care that must be given to equipment in order for it to function at optimal levels
management
a process of directing the use of organizational resources in order to accomplish specific organizational goals or objectives
management by exception (MBE)
a control technique whereby a manager is notified only when performance exceeds or falls below specified levels of deviation from a performance standard
management by objectives (MBO)
a management approach that involves employees in planning and controlling work activities
management information systems (MIS)
a system designed to collect, organize, and distribute info for use by managers in decision making and in other management functions
management science
a discipline that applies quantitative models, tools and techniques to the anaylsis and solution of business decision problems
management theory
the body of principles that explain the practice of management
manager
a person in an org who directs the use of all or part of the org's resources in order to fulfill the org's goals
managerial control
a level of control which provides tools to measure the performance of employees and the adequacy of the other resources so that functional areas of a business can achieve their goals and fulfill objectives
Managerial Grid
a formal approach to team building that enables managers to evaluate and plan improvements in their style of management
manipulation
the withholding, controlling, or distorting of info about a change
manipulation of numbers
calculations performed on info that is entered on a spreadsheet
master production schedule
a type of schedule that is used to coordinate the scheduling and control functions associated with production planning and that includes every item of info and every step included in the production of a product or service
material requirements planning (MRP)
a technique for simultaneously keeping track of multiple inventory transactions, including the ordering, storage, and use of numerous items of equipment and materials, especially items used in certain cycles of production
matrix approach (to departmentalization)
a flexible departmentalization system that allows an org to blend the efforts of employees from 2 or more organizational areas or divisions
maximizing
finding a solution that fulfills the max number of objectives established for a situation
meaning
a concept or idea that one person or group wants another person or group to receive
mechanistic design
an organizational design that features highly specialized tasks, specific definition of work roles, strong hierarchies, and primarily vertical communications
mediation
the process of using a third-party negotiator in order to reduce or resolve conflict
mentor
an experienced employee who serves as host, friend, and advisor, and sometimes a trainier, for a new employee
merit pay
an increase in compensation awarded to an employee soley on the basis of that employee's work performance
middle line
middle- and lower-level managers
mission statement
a statement that is based on an org's purpose and that defines the org's intended function
model
a mathematical representation of the interrelationship of a problem's variables
motivation
a process of arousing a need for a certain behavior, direction that behavior, and ensuring that the behavior continues for the desired length of time
motivator needs
needs that are present in experiences in which people feel motivated to perform at their fullest potential
motivators
task-related elements - such as recognition, responsibility, growth, advancement, and achievement - that satisfy motivator needs
narrative assessment
a detailed description, with examples, of an employee's performance in relation to the goals that have been set for that employee
narrow span of control
an organizational structure in which few employees report to a single manager
natural language processing
a feature of artificial intelligence systems that allows users to interact easily with a computer by using human language instead of machine language or computer language
need for achievement
the need to set high personal standards and to master fairly difficult, complex tasks as rapidly and as independently as is possible
need for affiliation
the need to form and maintain warm, friendly relationships with other people, as well to avoid conflict with them
need for power
the need to have control and authority over other people and to be responsible for them
network organization
an organizational structure in which an organization uses vendors and suppliers outside the org to perform specific business functions, such as marketing or distributing products, or recruiting employees
noise
any disruption of meaning in the communication process
nominal group technique
a decision-making technique that attempts to ensure equal opportunity to participate in the decision-making process of a group
noncompetitive work clause
an agreement between an org and a consultant specifying that the consultant will not perform similar functions for a competitor of the org for a certain period of time
noncybernetic control system
a system which must be monitored, usually by managers who use their discretion to make decisions about designing activities that will fulfill organizational goals
non-interference
a favorable reaction to change in which an employee feels neutral and shows no overt resistance to change, but does not help to implement change
nonprogrammed decision
a decision generally made concerning unusual, nonrecurring, or exceptional situations for which no rules, procedures, or policies have been established or are fully applicable
normative model
a management science model which describes the optimal action that should be taken in a situation
ombudsperson
a complaint official from the employee ranks who serves to convey to top management the other employees' comments and grievances about work-related activities
on-demand reports
reports provided when a member of an org requests specific info derived from an MIS
ongoing part-time
a work scheduling approach that enables an employee to be employed on a continuous basis, but to work only during morning or evening hours, or only on weekends
on-the-job training (OJT)
training provided while participants remain in the workplace and continue to perform most of their usual duties
open-door policy
a communication policy in which supervisors encourage employees to enter their offices at almost any time to voice their opinions, objections, complaints, compliments, and any other information they care to convey
open recruitment
a recruitment process that involves publicizing openings within an org and encouraging any presently employed person to apply for an available position
open system
a system that interacts with its environment
operating budget
a budget that outlines the financial plan for each unit or dept of an org and that includes dollar figures for the goods and services which are expected to be consumed by each organizational unit
operating core
employees who directly produce goods and services
operational control
a level of control that is concerned primarily with overseeing the day-to-day work of individuals and groups
operational planning
a sequence of specific approaches that will implement strategic plans
operations
the specified manipulations of an input in order to produce desired output
operations management
the process of designing, operating, and controlling resource-transforming systems
optimizing
finding the best possible solution for a situation
ordering costs
the expenses that are associated with placing orders for materials and that generally include the cost of the work time of the employee who orders materials, as well as postage, telephone, and other telecommunication expenses
organic design
an organizational design which features interdependent tasks, more group work than individual work generalized definition of work roles, a network structure rather than a hierarchy, and both vertical and horizontal communication
organization chart
a diagram of an org's structure showing the authority-responsibility relationships between superiors and their subordinates in the departments or other units within the organization
organization development (OD)
the process of using interpersonal and group interactions to make fundamental, planned changes in an org's culture, systems and behavior
organizational change
the process of defining, developing and adopting a new approach or concept in an organization
organizational design
the unique ways in which an org's elements relate to one another
organizational goals
statements that are based on on org's mission statements and that express strategic goals and organizational objectives
organizational purpose
a reason of existence of an organization
organizational resources
elements such as financial resources, physical resources, info resources and human resources that managers use in management process
organizational structure
the common elements that all organizations possess
organizing
a process by which managers coordinate the use of a company's human and physical resources to meet the company's goals
orientation
the process of introducing new employees to the org's procedures, policies and other employees
outplacement counseling
counseling which provides career counseling, vocational testing and skills evaluation, and info about job searches, but which does not imply that the present employer is assuming responsibility for finding new employment for a person whose position has been terminated
output
any info or element that can be generated or produced by a system
parallel implementation
maintaining a current MIS at the same time that a new MIS is being installed
participant diary/log
a list of activities that an employee performs during a typical day
participating
in situational leadership a leadership style that reduces the amount of task behavior while still providing a high degree of relationship behavior
participative management
the involvement of subordinates in planning and power sharing
path-goal theory
a leadership model which states that an effective leader provides desireable and meaningful rewards to subordinates, communicates clear goals and directions, provides guidance and training as needed and eliminates barriers that prevent accomplishment of specified goals
paths
in a PERT or CPM network, the connections between activities and events
payoff matrix
a qualitative decision-making technique that specifies the value of a series of alternatives
people with disabilities
persons with any physical or mental disability that substantially limits the persons' major, normal activities, such as walking, speaking, seeing, hearing or learning
performance
the degree to which a person contributes effectively to the fulfillment of an org's objectives and goals
performance appraisal
the formal evaluation of an employee's work.
performance standard
an organizational or departmental goal expressed in objective terms that are as measurable as possible
periodic inventory
an inventory that accounts for supplies only at specified times-for instance, at the end of a month or a year
perpetual inventory
a continually updated record of supplies on hand and supplies used
perpetuation of past discrimination
a result of continuation of an intentional or unintentional discriminatory practice
person-role conflict
conflict that is the result of a person's own needs or values coming into conflict with the needs or values associated with the workplace
personal conflict
conflict that occurs within an individual
personal staff
a group of employees who provide assistance, research support, and counsel to an individual manager or to a department or other subunit, rather than to the org as a whole
personalized power
the attempt to dominate and to conquer others
personnel replacement chart
a job forecasting tool that itemizes information of an incumbent and for the person or persons qualified to move into the next higher job position
performance
the degree to which a person contributes effectively to the fulfillment of an org's objectives and goals
phased implementation
the implementation of one or more phases of a new MIS at a time, slowly converting from a current system while carefully testing the new procedures to discover and rectify problems
physical resources
a type of organizational resource consisting of office and production facilities, equipment and raw materials
piecework plan
compensation based on the amount of work that a person produces
plan
a statement that specifies ways of allocating, scheduling, or otherwise using organizational resources in fulfilling goals
planned change
change that an org arranges in advance to handle
planning
a process by which managers set goals and define ways by which organizational goals can be attained
point method
a job evaluation method that awards points to each job on the basis of its requirements for education and training, physical demands, responsibility, skill, workplace hazards, and any other important factors
point-in-time claim history
the point at which data from a manual claim handling system is entered into an automated claim handling system
policy
a standing plan that establishes a broad-based, general approach to guide decision making
pooled interdependence
interdependence that results when organizational subunits operate independently of each other in fulfilling their usual work tasks, but do not rely on each other to make separate contributions to the well-being of the organization
positive reinforcement
the provision of a pleasant consequence when a person has performed a desired behavior so that the person will be more likely to repeat the desired behavior
postponing
a conflict management technique that involves adopting a 'wait and see' attitude or insisting on a lengthy, due-process approach to a conflict
power
the ability to accomplish goals and to change the behavior or attitude of individuals, groups, or organizations
preliminary control
a type of control instituted before an org's activities begin; its purpose is to anticipate problems or complications, and to resolve or eliminate them before the activities start
probability
a grapevine communication pattern that occurs when one person passes on information to others at random, and each of those persons continues to pass the info at random to other memebers of the organization
procedure
a detailed standing plan for implementing recurring activities
procedures manual
a manual specifying the work flow procedures and the standard method used to service each product handled by a work unit
process chart
a chart that follows the flow of work - inputs and outputs - from one individual or area to another
process departmentalization
the grouping of all or some of an org's activities according to a work process or according to the equipment required to perform a work process
process theories of motivation
theories which focus on the goals that individuals are motivated to reach and on the reasons why individuals make choices of behavior and then judge the behavior as successful or unsuccessful
product departmentalization
the grouping of work activities relating to the development, distribution, and processing of products or services
productivity
a measure of the degree to which a work system obtains the results for which it was designed
professional bureaucracy
an organizational form that usually produces nonroutine services rather than tangible products and that is composed of professionals with wide decision-making authority
profit budget
a budget that presents the difference between expenses and revenues and that shows the gross profit and the net profit expected for an organization
profitability
an org's ability to earn more money than it spends
profitability ratio
a ratio used to calculate an org's profits and to reflect the org's overall effectiveness
profit-sharing plan
distribution of a share of an org's profits to the org's employees
program
a single-use plan the coordinates a number of activities or projects designed to attain a goal
program evaluation and review technique(PERT)
a technique that allows a manager to plan and to estimate the completion time for the steps of a project and for an entire project, as well as to monitor and control progress on the project by comparing the estimated completion times to the actual times required
programmed decision
a decision made according to some established procedure, rule or custom
programmed instruction
a special type of self-study program that uses either a booklet or a computer to present a participant with a series of sequential, information statements followed by questions and explanations
project
a single use plan specifying the activities required to reach a goal that is usually less complex and of more limited scope than the typical goal specified in a program
project management structure
an organizational structure in which employees are assigned to work on a project because of their skills or expertise
promotion
the act of moving an employee to a higher lever of the organizational hierarchy
punishment
the imposition of undesirable consequences for undesireable behavior in order to discourage the recurrence of that behavior
purchasing
the process of obtaining the materials, equipment, and services needed to perform work procedures and to fulfill organizational objectives
quality control
a process which helps to ensure that an org's products and services conform to the standards established for them
quality control ratio
the degree of completeness and accuracy of a quality control review for insurance claims
quality control review
a review that checks the overall performance of employees
quality of work life (QWL)
the degree to which an org is able to satisfy each employee's important personal needs, particulary the needs for control of work and growth
queuing model
a type of scheduling model that helps a decison maker to determine the optimal number of waiting lines in situations in which persons or production must wait
range of deviation
measurable limits above and below a performance standard within which performance is considered acceptable
reactive change
change that occurs in response to unexpected events
realistic job preview (RJP)
the presentation of both positive and negative work-related info to applicants before they are hired rather than after they join an organization
reality shock
a reaction caused by the difference between what a new employee expects to find on the job and what the employee actually encounters
rebuilding
the incorporation of planned changes in an org in order to provide for carefully controlled growth
recency error
an evaluation error in which an evaluator tends to base judgments of an employee's performance on the employee's most recent accomplishments or shortcomings rather than on the employee's performance during the entire evaluation peroid
reciprocal interdependence
interdependence that creates a two-way work relationship in which employees pass an item back and forth between groups during the production process
recruitment
the process of gathering a group of qualified applicants from whom to select employees
reduction in force (RIF)
cutbacks in employees and in payroll and other expenditures so as to reduce an org's size and the production or service costs
referent power
power based on the desire of followers to identify with or to imitate another person
refreezing
in the Lewin model of change, the support and reinforcement of a change until it becomes the accepted and desired mode of action
regression model
a type of causal model used to make complex predictions of the effect of a dependent variable on a number of independent variables
reinforcement
any action or circumstance that tends to cause subsequent behavior to be repeated, avoided, or inhibited
reinforcement theory
a motivation theory that focuses on the ways in which the results or outcomes of prior behavior affect future behavior
relatedness needs
according to Alderfer's hierarchy, a person's needs for relationships with other persons
relationship behavior
in situational leadership, a leader's behavior evidenced by open channels of communication with followers and by the offer of approval, trust, and emotional support
reliability
a test's consistency in measuring the same traits or abilities in a person who is tested on several occasions
research and development department
a department assigned to create new approaches, products, and technologies and to initiate change within an organization
reservation
a favorable reaction to change in which an employee accepts the broad outline of the change but feels threatened or uncertain about some details of it
resignation
a type of separation that occurs when an employee leaves an org in order to pursue work with another org or to take up an alternative occupation, such as parenting or education
resistance
a deliberate attempt to avoid following a leader's directions
responsibility
the obligation to fulfill whatever assignments have been attached to the delegation of authority
restraining forces
the influences that resist change
retirement
a type of separation that occurs when and employee withdraws from a position or an occupation usually concluding a career or profession
revenue budget
a financial document showing the forecasted income of an organization
revitalization
the act of strengthening an org and enabling it to function as a renewed, competitive entity
reward
the material or psychological consequences for accomplishment
reward system
the incentives and approaches by which employees' work performance is defined, measured, and compensated
reward power
power derived from the ability of a leader to give a reward to another person
risk
a condition which indicates that a decision maker has access to clear objectives and reasonably accurate, complete info about alternatives, but that the outcomes of the alternatives cannot be accurately predicted
role ambiguity
conflict that occurs when a person receives vague or insufficient info concerning a work-related task or responsiblity
role overload
conflict which can result when one person or group receives work assignments from several sources to the extent that all the work cannot be successfully accomplished
role playing
an off-the-job training technique which engages learners in a simulation technique so that they can act out specified roles, such as that of manager interviewer, supervisor, or employee
routine reports
routine info that is usually disseminated on a regular basis - hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, and so forth - depending on the need for that type of information
rule
a designation of a required action
satisficing
choosing the first alternative that appears to fulfill the minimal criteria established for a decision rather than taking the time to collect every piece of available data, analyze it carefully, and apply logic and rationality in reaching an optimal decision
scalar chain
a hierarchy of authority extending from top to bottom positions in an organization
Scanlon Plan
a specific type of profit sharing plan which enables employees to share directly in any profits that an org makes as the result of the employees' suggestions for cost-cutting procedures and equipment
scheduling model
a model used to determine the optimal time or period when each part of a job should be done
scientific management
a classical management approach that seeks to determine the most efficient method for completing a task through scientifically studying the work process; structuring
tasks; and selecting, training, and motivating employees
self-study certification program
a training approach that affords employees an opportunity to learn new, industry-related info, to update their skills and knowledge, and to earn professional designations
self-managing work group
a group of employees who plan, perform, and manage nearly every aspect of their work
selling
in situational leadership, a leadership style involving a high proportion of both tasks behavior and relationship behavior
semivariable costs
expenses that have a fixed component as well as additional components that vary with levels of production
sender
a person who wants to communicate meaning
separation
a change in employment status that results from resignation, layoff, retirement or discharge
sequencing model
a specialized type of scheduling model that helps a decision maker to determine the order of the steps or procedures of work
sequential interdependence
interdependence that results when one subunit must act before another subunit can act
sexual harassment
unwanted sexual advances or requests, or any sex-related conversation or behavior that could make an employee of either gender feel uncomfortable
simple ranking method
performance evaluation method that requires a manager to rank every employee from best to worst on a specified behavior or group of behaviors
simple structure
an organizational form that uses a functional structure and includes on manager, who is usually the owner of the company and who comprises the strategic apex, as well as a few employees in the operating core, the technostructure, support staff and the middle line are absent or not well defined
single-strand
a grapevine communication pattern that takes the same form as a chain network in a formal org and enables info to flow direcly from one person to another
single use plans
plans formulated to handle situations that will probably not recur or that are short term
situational leadership theory
a flexible approach to leadership by which a leader chooses a leadership style that is based on the level of readiness or employees to assume the responsibilities required by a specific work situation
skill variety
the degree to which a job enables an employee to use numberous skills and abilities
skill-based plan
a compensation plan in which an employee is paid more for each advancement in skills or training
skills inventory
a job forecasting tool that contains information concerning the education, abilities, and work experience of each employee within an organization
skunkworks
an informal group in which employees work without an org's official establishment or encouragement in order to develop new work-related ideas and procedures
slack time
in a PERT or CPM network, the amount of delay allowed in specific activities without slowing the entire project so much that it cannot be completed by the desired date
smoothing
a conflict management technique which emphasizes that a conflict is brief or unimportant, points out areas in which the conflicting parities do or could agree, and attempts to talk one side or group into abandoning the conflict
socialization
the process of learning about the culture of an organization
socialized power
power that reflects concern for the development and achievement of common goals within a group
software
programs and instructions that are sent to a computer to direct the performance of the computer's hardware and programs, program documentation, and the standards or techniques used in programming a computer
span of control
the number of persons who report to one manager
specialization
assignment of one worker to perform one task
specialized staff
staff providing expert assistance and counsel in an area of specialization to the entire org, including both line and staff employees
speech recognition program
a feature of artificial intellegence syterms that enables a computer to recognize and understand the sounds of human speech
split-award method
compenstation plan in which an employee receives 2 amounts of money: one is base on the employee's personal contribution to the success of the org, and the other is base on the overall performance of the organization
sponsor
an individual in an org who has the authority and influence needed to direct and implement a planned change
revenue budget
a financial document showing the forecasted income of an organization
revitalization
the act of strengthening an org and enabling it to function as a renewed, competitive entity
reward
the material or psychological consequences for accomplishment
reward system
the incentives and approaches by which employees' work performance is defined, measured, and compensated
reward power
power derived from the ability of a leader to give a reward to another person
risk
a condition which indicates that a decision maker has access to clear objectives and reasonably accurate, complete information about alternatives, but that the outcomes of the alternatives cannot be accurate predicted
role ambiguity
conflict that occurs when a person receives vague or insufficient info concerning a work-related task or responsiblity
role overload
conflict which can result when one person or group receives work assignments from several sources to the extent that all the work cannot be successfully accomplished
role playing
an off-the-job training technique which engages learners in a simulation of technique so that they can act out specified roles, such as that of manager interviewer, supervisor, or employee
routine reports
routine info that is usually disseminated on a regular basis - hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, and so forth - depending on the need for that type of information
rule
a designation of a required action
satisficing
choosing the first alternative that appears to fulfill the minimal criteria established for a decision rather than taking the time to collect every piece of available data, analyze it carefully, and apply logic and rationality in reaching an optimal decision
scalar chain
a hierarchy of authority extending from top to bottom positions in an organization
Scanlon Plan
a specific type of profit sharing plan which enables employees to share directly in any profits that an org makes as the result of the employees' suggestions for cost-cutting procedures and equipment
scheduling model
a model used to determine the optimal time or period when each part of a job should be done
scientific management
a classical management approach that seeks to determine the most efficient method for completing a task through scientifically studying the work process; structuring tasks; and selecting, training, and motivating employees
self-study certification program
a training approach that affords employees an opportunity to learn new, industry-related info, to update their skills and knowledge, and to earn professional designations
self-managing work group
a group of employees who plan, perform, and manage nearly every aspect of their work
selling
in situational leadership, a leadership style involving a high proportion of both tasks behavior and relationship behavior
semivariable costs
expenses that have a fixed component as well as additional components that vary with levels of production
sender
a person who wants to communicate meaning
separation
a change in employment status that results from resignation, layoff, retirement or discharge
sequencing model
a specialized type of scheduling model that helps a decision maker to determine the order of the steps or procedures of work
sequential interdependence
interdependence that results when one subunit must act before another subunit can act
sexual harassment
unwanted sexual advances or requests, or any sex-related conversation or behavior that could make an employee of either gender feel uncomfortable
simple ranking method
performance evaluation method that requires a manager to rank every employee from best to worst on a specified behavior or group of behaviors
simple structure
an organizational form that uses a functional structure and includes on manager, who is usually the owner of the company and who comprises the strategic apex, as well as a few employees in the operating core; the technostructure, support staff and the middle line are absent or not well defined
single-strand
a grapevine communication pattern that takes the same form as a chain network in a formal org and enables info to flow direcly from one person to another
single use plans
plans formulated to handle situations that will probably not recur or that are short-term
situational leadership theory
a flexible approach to leadership by which a leader chooses a leadership style that is base on the level of readiness of employees to assume the responsibilities required by a specific work situation
skill variety
the degree to which a job enables an employee to use numerous skills and abilities
skill-based plan
a compensation plan in which an employee is paid more for each advancement in skills or training
skills inventory
a job forecasting tool that contains info concerning the education, abilities, and work experience of each employee within an organization
skunkworks
an informal group in which employees work without an org's official establishment or encouragement in order to develop new work-related ideas and procedures
slack time
in a PERT or CPM network, the amount of delay allowed in specific activities without slowing the entire project so much that it cannot be completed by the desired date
smoothing
a conflict management technique which emphasizes that a conflict is brief or unimportant, points out areas in which the conflicting parties do or could agree, and attempts to talk one side or group into abandoning the conflict
socialization
the process of learning about the culture of an organization
socialized power
power that reflects concern for the development and achievement of common goals within a group
software
programs and instructions that are sent to a computer to direct the performance of the computer's hardware and programs, program documentation, and the standards or techniques used in programming a computer
span of control
the number of persons who report to one manager
specialization
assignment of one worker to perform one task
specialized staff
staff providing expert assistance and counsel in an area of specialization to the entire organization, including both line and staff employees
speech recognition program
a feature of artificial intelligence systems that enables a computer to recognize and understand the sounds of human speech
split-award method
compensation plan in which an employee receives 2 amounts of money: one is based on the employee's personal contribution to the success of the org, and the other based on the overall performance of the organization
sponsor
an individual in an org who has the authority and influence needed to direct and implement a planned change
stabilization
the identification of specific areas of organizational strength and weakness on which to base possible new growth and reorganization, and the maintenance of an org's production at reduced levels while that planning is taking place
staff authority
authority used to advise other employees and to make recommendations about work tasks
staff positions
positions held by persons who provide advice and services to persons in line positions
stagnation
a type of organizational decline in which an org does not produce well in a favorable business environment because of unintentional failures in the org's managerial judgement or performance
standard hour plan
compensation plan that states an incentive in time units rather than in monetary units
standardization
the establishment of the same work activities to be accomplished by all subordinates and the institution of the same rules and procedures for all employees
standing plans
plans formulated to organize activities that occur repeatedly or that are long-term
star
a communication network that is similar to the circle, but in which each member of the network can communicate with every other member of the network
stockout costs
the expenses associated with production delays and other problems resulting from inadequate supplies or materials
strategic apex
top management and their supporting staff
strategic control
a level of control which involves making sure that all units of an org focus their activities on fulfilling the org's goals
strategic goals
general statements of an org's future position, relating to the org as a whole, not just its distinct areas or departments
strategic plan
a formal, long-range plan designed to fulfill organizational goals
strategy
an org's overall program for specifying and achieving its organizational objectives as well as its response to its environment
structural changes
revising any of the basic organizational elements or changing an org's overall design
structural elaboration stage
the stage of the org life cycle that establishes increasingly formal, elaborate controls, including detailed budgets and regulations, and other control mechanisms
structural plateau
the career level of an employee's last possible promotion
structured interview
a type of interviewing in which a list of questions that are based on a job description are prepared and are used in interviewing every applicant
superordinate goals
an org's guiding values that are usually unwritten and that provide a broad concept of the org's ideal direction for the future
support staff
employees who provide support outside the production of good or services - for instance, maintenance, clerical, legal, consultant, and mailrooms services
suppression
a conflict management technique that involves invoking specific rules or using authoritarian rule to stifle a conflict
survey feedback
an information-gathering tool in which each employee takes part in a personal interview or responds to a questionnaire designed to evaluate attitudes, values, and perceptions about work-related topics
SWOT analysis
organizational assessment of characteristics - strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, that are important to the formulation of strategic plans
synectic approach to decision making
a decision making technique in which a solution to a generalized problem is reached by joining together the ideas of a group of participants
synectics
a process of combining various elements that apparently have little or no relevance to each other
synergism
an effect which results when 2 or more people interact cooperatively to produce an effect that is greater than the sum of effects that theose people could have produced alone
system
a group of related parts or units that operate together to achieve a mutual purpose or goal
system 1 organization
a type of org that is similar to a bureaucracy and is largely job-centered, with top management making most decisions and using authority forcefully to motivate employees
system 4 organization
a type of org that encourages an employee-centered, interactive managerial approach in which employees at all levels communicate openly and extensively
systems approach to management
an approach that views an org as a collection of parts which work interdependently to achieve common purposes
tactical objectives
statements of goals of distinct areas or departments within an organization
tall organization
an org in which there are many managerial levels between the top-level employees and the bottom-level employees
targets
the individuals or divisions that are directly affected by a change
task autonomy
the degree to which a job allows an employee the freedom to schedule work, to determine the procedures used to perform work, and to make decisions concerning work
task behavior
in situational leadership, a leader's behavior that defines followers' work roles, explains work procedures, and emphasizes the need to complete a job
task force
a group of employees temporarily assigned to pool their experience and expertise in handling a problem or job
task identity
the degree to which a job allows an employee to complete a whole, identifiable unit of work
task significance
the degree to which a job encourages an employee to feel that the work has a substantial effect on the lives, work and well-being of other people
team building
using teams of employees in order to enhance interaction, cohesiveness, and effectiveness of an org's units
team interdependencee
interdependence in which subunits perform work interactively rather than transferring work between subunits
technological changes
combinations of technological changes and structural changes, often used to improve work performance and employee satisfaction
technostructure
specialists such as researchers, accountants, planners, human resource personnel, and engineers
telecommuting
a type of job scheduling that enables an employee to use components of an information system to perform work at a location remote from an org's office - usually in the employee's home - and then to transmit the completed work electronically to the org's office
telling
in situational leadership, a leadership style involving a high proportion of task behavior and a low proportion of relationship behavior
termination
the cessation of all of an org's activities; the end of employment by either an employer or an employee
territorial departmentalization
the grouping of activities according to the location of the org's operations
theory
a set of principles that are used to explain some class of phenomena
theory x
the faulty assumptions upon which the traditional management practice of scientific management were based
theory y
a set of attitudes that management could adopt in designing a workplace in which employees would be self-directed and productive
theory z
a theory that integrates the typical business practices in the US and Japan
third-party peacemaking
intervention between 2 or more parties -individuals or groups - who are in conflict
three-position plan
a work rotation plan in which each worker occupies three job positions simultaneously: the worker holds the present job, prepares for promotion to the next job, and serves as a trainier for the person who will replace the worker in the present job
time and motion studies
studies undertaken in order to observe and time the separate steps necessay to perform a work task; developed by Taylor
time departmentalization
the grouping of work tasks according to units of time
time series analysis
a procedure that examines past data for trends, assumes that those trends will continue, and then predicts future events
top-down approach
an approach to structural change in which upper-level managers use their expertise to devise changes in an org's structure and then direct lower-level employees to implement the changes
top-down budgeting
a budget-setting approach in which all budgets are prepared by upper-level managers; lower-level managers do not take part in the budget-setting process, but accept budgets imposed by their superiors
training
activity directed toward learning, maintaining, and improving the skills necessary for current job performance
traits
a person's characteristics or qualities, such as age, judgment, physical size, cooperativeness, decisiveness, and fluency of speech
transformation
the complete change of an org's activities from one line of business to another
uncertainty
a condition which indicates that a decision maker has been able to specify objectives, but that the info required to make a decision is incomplete or only partially accurate, difficult to analyze, or difficult to predict
unfreezing
in the Lewin model of change, informing an individual or institution that will be affected by a change as to the need for the change
unit cost
in claim handling, the cost to administer one claim
upgrading
the education, development, and training of a present employee to perform work duties better or to take on new duties
valence
the strength of a person's preference for the expected outcome of an action or behavior
validity
the degree to which a test measures the quality or skill that it was designed to measure
variable costs
expenses that can vary according to the amount of business transacted
variable interval schedule of reinforcement
a response to behavior at random times
variable merit pay (VMP)
an employee is awarded a lump-sum payment at predetermined intervals - annual, semiannually, or monthly, for example. the amount depends on the employee's productivity or on the overall productivity of the group of employees or a department of an organization
variable ratio schedule of reinforcement
a response after a certain number of behaviors, with the number varying - that is, the reinforcement occurs after a random number of desired behaviors have occurrred, regardless of the length of time between reinforcements
venture team
a group of individuals who are members of an organization, but who work separately from the rest of the organization on a temporary basis
vertical communication
a type of formal communication that can flow upward, downward, or both upward and downward, and that generally involves transmission of info between superiors and subordinates
vertical coodination
integration between organizational units separated by hierarchial levels
vestibule training
training that enables an employee to take part in a simulated work experience without having to risk the consequences of making errors in a real-life situation
voice synthesizer
a feature of artificial intelligence systems that enables a computer to emulate the sounds of human speech
wage level
the amount of pay a company generally provides compared to the pay provided for similar jobs by other organizations in the area
wage structure
the difference in pay from one job to another within an organization
wage survey
a measure of the wages paid for certain jobs in a specific labor market
wheel
a communication network which is highly centralized, in that all information flows toward on person who controls communication with each member of the wheel network
wide span of control
an organizational structure in which a large number of employees report to one manager
word processing
the creation, storage, retrieval, editing, formatting, and printing of documents by using a computer
work flow layout
a plan for arranging employees, equipment, storage and maintenance facilities, and the flow of work in a logical, cost-effective, and efficient manner
work sample
a type of employment test that involves measuring how well a candidate performs on activities that a job requires
work sampling
the process of checking a portion of an employee's work for specific characteristics and qualities in order to make an objective assessment of the degree to which the employee is or is not attaining specified goals
work specialization
the division of the overall tasks of an org into smaller tasks, which are then performed by individual units or employees
work team
a group of employees who serve on an ongoing basis, with the same powers and responsibilities of a task force
Y
a communication network which is a modification of the chain network and which provides that info be sent from 2 persons to one person, and thence to another person in a single chain
zero-base budgeting
a budget-setting process in which each manager must justify in detail the reasons that money should be allotted to the future support of a department or unit or an organization