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### 84 Cards in this Set

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 operational definition of variables specifies just how a variable is measured or counted processes systematic, repetitive actions whose purpose is to create something of value rework undoing and redoing actions taken previously scrap complete adandonment of a partly completed task sampling a plausible approach to data gathering any time potentially valuable data are to be gathered by complete data would be impossible or uneconomical to gather experimentation an approach to data gathering that is a key component of the drive to improve quality of products and processes frequency table a table that specifies the distribution of the data of the frequencies in which all the various values occur relative frequency the frequency of a value divided by the total number of measurements qualitative data Data that counts the numbers or percentage in a particular category that have an attribute or characteristic. (e.g. eye color, brand preference, quality errors) bar chart A method of displaying counts of attribute data. - use rectangles to porray the data quantitative data Numerical data that measures some variable of interest - often a measurement on a continuous scale where magnitude is significant information. (e.g. amount of an additive in a process, rotational speed of a drill bit, expenditures on advertising) grouped data combining of values from a variable that has many possible values classes choice of groups histograms often used with grouped data, these charts are always used with quantitative data - rectangles are diretly adjacent skewed data on a chart with a long tail in one direction or the other outliers wild values that are far from the bulk of the data bimodal two distinct peaks in a distribution separated by a pronounced valley stem-and-leaf diagram A method for displaying data that both shows the data set and a kind of histogram of the data. time series plot / sequence plot a graph of the data values of a quantitative variable versus time or collection order seasonality a reaoccuring pattern in the data trend a gradual increase or decrease in the in the data over time two-way frequency table / cross-tabulation an appropriate tabular summary for 2 qualitative variables stacked bar chart / 100% stacked bar chart useful graphical displays for 2 qualitative variables scatterplot the best tool for visualizing the relationship between 2 quantitative variables mode the value or category with th highest frequency in the data - most commonly used with qualitative data average mode, median,or mean median the middle value of a set of data when the data is arranged from lowest to highest. mean the sum of the measurements taken on that variable divided by the number of measurements - only meaningful for quantitative data trimmed means a process that eliminates the outliers when determining the mean outliers data values that lie far above or below the preponderance of the data measures of location / measures of central tendancy mode, median, mean, trimmed means - indicate the center or general location of data values range the difference between the largest and smallest values - the simplest measure of variability mean absolute deviation the simplest measure of the magnitudes of the deviations - the average of the absolute values of the deviations variance / mean squared error the average squared devation - the sum of the squared deviations divided by (n-1) standard deviation the positive square root of the variance interquartile range 25th and 75th percentiles - the values that mark the bottom 1/4 and top 1/4 of the data e-notation exponents used in computer outputs pareto chart A bar chart that ranks the categories from highest to lowest pareto chart A bar chart that ranks the categories from highest to lowest means chart / x-bar chart a plot of times versus means of observations taken at those times statistical control the state of a process that is operating consistently, wherein the means will vary randomly, but won't show any systematic changes r chart a result of when data is taken over time and the range is plotted against time - shows that a problem is developing over time s chart a plot of standard deviations against time - a useful quality control tool in assessing whether there has been a change in variability cusum chart a chart that keeps track of the cumulative sum of a series of measurements random variable a quantitative result from a random experiment that is subject to random variability. it is determined by specifying its possible values and the probability associated with each value. discrete variables whose possible values are distinct and seperate, like 0, or 1, or 2, or 3. continuous variables whose possible values form a whole interval or range probability distribution this for a discrete random variable Y assigns a probability to each value y of the random variable Y. Can be expressed as a formula, graph, or a table. probability histogram graph of a probability distribution cumulative distribution function for a discrete random variable Y is a function that specifies the probability that Y<=y for all values of y. expected value of a discrete random variable Y with probability distribution Py(y) is the probability-weighted average of its possible values Expected value of Y - E(Y) a porbability-weighted average, a summary figure that takes into account that relative probabilities of different values of Y - or a long run average of Y variance of a discrete random variable the probability-weighted average of squared deviations from the mean (expected value) pie charts A method of displaying proportions of attribute data that fell in various exhaustive catagories. sttribute (nominal) data A type of qualitative data where the only measure is that the item has the attribute or does not. (e.g. marital status, yes/no responses, brand preference (like/dislike)) bar charts A method of displaying counts of attribute data. Box plot A graphical depiction of a data set that uses a box to show the 1st and 3rd quartiles and whiskers to show the minimum and maximum values. Asterisks are used to show outliers - anamoly values determined to be outside of reasonable minimum and maximum. maximum the largest value in data set minimum the smallest value in a data set Ranked (oridnal) data A type of qualitative data in which the measure goes beyond attribute data and actually ranks how much of the attribute the item has. (e.g. Bond ratings Aaa, Aa, A, Baa; brand preference (ranked best to worst)) stratification A method to "break down" a larger data set into a set of smaller data sets by some factor. regression analysis past dara on the relevant variables (independant variables) are used to develop and evaluate a prediction equation (dependant variables) dependant variable the variable that is being predicted by regression analysis independant variable the variable that is being used to make the prediction in regression analysis prediction v. explanation reference to future values v. reference to current or past events unit of association an entity that relates two variables simple linear regression there is a single independent variable, and the equation for predicting a dependant variable y is a linear function of a given independant variable x intercept the constant term that is the predicted value of y when x=( ). slope The predicted change in y when there is a one-unit change in x linearity assumption the slope of the equation does not change as x changes smoothers have been developed to sketch a curve through data without necessarily assumingany particular model least-square method used to minimize the the total squared prediction error. NORMAL DISTRIBUTION THE MOST COMMONLY USED SYMETRIC BELL-SHAPED DISTRIBUTION CURVE DSTRIBUTION THE PATTERN FORMED AS YOU COLLECT MORE DATA AND THE PICTURE BECOMES MORE REFINED PARAMETERS DETERMINED QUANTITIES THAT SPECIFY DIFFERENT FEATURES OF THE DISTRIBUTION STANDARD DEVIATION THE RESULTING MEASURE OF SPREAD AFTER TAKING THE SQUARE ROOT OF THE SPREAD COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION THE COMMON EXPRESSION OF STANDARD DEVIATION AS A PROPORTION OR PERCENTAGE OF THE MEAN MEAN ABSOLUTE DEVIATION OBTAINED BY TAKING THE MEAN OF THE DEVIATIONS AND REGARDING THEM ALL AS POSITIVE SAMPLE VARIANCE THE SQUARE OF THE STANDARD DEVIATION STANDARD NORMAL DISTRIBUTION HAS A MEAN OF ZERO AND A STANDARD DEVIATION OF ONE CHI-SQUARE DISTRIBUTION TELLS THE PROBABILITY OF THE SAMPLE RESULT (THE ACTUAL NUMBERS) HAVING ARISEN PURELY BY CHANCE DEGREE OF FREEDOM THE NUMBERS WILL IDENTIFY A ROW OF THE CHI-SQUARE TABLE CHITEST A STATISTICAL FUNCTION THAT SHOWS THE PROBABILITY THAT THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHAT WE OBSERVE AND WHAT WE WOULD EXPECT ARE DUE TO CHANCE - GIVES US THE EXACT PROBABILITY, WHICH WE CAN THEN USE TO JUDGE WHETHER THE DIFFERENCES ARE REAL OR NOT STANDARD ERROR OF PROPORTIONS STANDARD DEVIATION OF A PROPORTION