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84 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
operational definition of variables

specifies just how a variable is measured or counted


processes

systematic, repetitive actions whose purpose is to create something of value


rework

undoing and redoing actions taken previously


scrap

complete adandonment of a partly completed task


sampling

a plausible approach to data gathering any time potentially valuable data are to be gathered by complete data would be impossible or uneconomical to gather


experimentation

an approach to data gathering that is a key component of the drive to improve quality of products and processes


frequency table

a table that specifies the distribution of the data of the frequencies in which all the various values occur


relative frequency

the frequency of a value divided by the total number of measurements


qualitative data

Data that counts the numbers or percentage in a particular category that have an attribute or characteristic. (e.g. eye color, brand preference, quality errors)


bar chart

A method of displaying counts of attribute data.  use rectangles to porray the data


quantitative data

Numerical data that measures some variable of interest  often a measurement on a continuous scale where magnitude is significant information. (e.g. amount of an additive in a process, rotational speed of a drill bit, expenditures on advertising)


grouped data

combining of values from a variable that has many possible values


classes

choice of groups


histograms

often used with grouped data, these charts are always used with quantitative data  rectangles are diretly adjacent


skewed

data on a chart with a long tail in one direction or the other


outliers

wild values that are far from the bulk of the data


bimodal

two distinct peaks in a distribution separated by a pronounced valley


stemandleaf diagram

A method for displaying data that both shows the data set and a kind of histogram of the data.


time series plot / sequence plot

a graph of the data values of a quantitative variable versus time or collection order


seasonality

a reaoccuring pattern in the data


trend

a gradual increase or decrease in the in the data over time


twoway frequency table / crosstabulation

an appropriate tabular summary for 2 qualitative variables


stacked bar chart / 100% stacked bar chart

useful graphical displays for 2 qualitative variables


scatterplot

the best tool for visualizing the relationship between 2 quantitative variables


mode

the value or category with th highest frequency in the data  most commonly used with qualitative data


average

mode, median,or mean


median

the middle value of a set of data when the data is arranged from lowest to highest.


mean

the sum of the measurements taken on that variable divided by the number of measurements  only meaningful for quantitative data


trimmed means

a process that eliminates the outliers when determining the mean


outliers

data values that lie far above or below the preponderance of the data


measures of location / measures of central tendancy

mode, median, mean, trimmed means  indicate the center or general location of data values


range

the difference between the largest and smallest values  the simplest measure of variability


mean absolute deviation

the simplest measure of the magnitudes of the deviations  the average of the absolute values of the deviations


variance / mean squared error

the average squared devation  the sum of the squared deviations divided by (n1)


standard deviation

the positive square root of the variance


interquartile range

25th and 75th percentiles  the values that mark the bottom 1/4 and top 1/4 of the data


enotation

exponents used in computer outputs


pareto chart

A bar chart that ranks the categories from highest to lowest


pareto chart

A bar chart that ranks the categories from highest to lowest


means chart / xbar chart

a plot of times versus means of observations taken at those times


statistical control

the state of a process that is operating consistently, wherein the means will vary randomly, but won't show any systematic changes


r chart

a result of when data is taken over time and the range is plotted against time  shows that a problem is developing over time


s chart

a plot of standard deviations against time  a useful quality control tool in assessing whether there has been a change in variability


cusum chart

a chart that keeps track of the cumulative sum of a series of measurements


random variable

a quantitative result from a random experiment that is subject to random variability. it is determined by specifying its possible values and the probability associated with each value.


discrete

variables whose possible values are distinct and seperate, like 0, or 1, or 2, or 3.


continuous

variables whose possible values form a whole interval or range


probability distribution

this for a discrete random variable Y assigns a probability to each value y of the random variable Y. Can be expressed as a formula, graph, or a table.


probability histogram

graph of a probability distribution


cumulative distribution function

for a discrete random variable Y is a function that specifies the probability that Y<=y for all values of y.


expected value

of a discrete random variable Y with probability distribution Py(y) is the probabilityweighted average of its possible values


Expected value of Y  E(Y)

a porbabilityweighted average, a summary figure that takes into account that relative probabilities of different values of Y  or a long run average of Y


variance of a discrete random variable

the probabilityweighted average of squared deviations from the mean (expected value)


pie charts

A method of displaying proportions of attribute data that fell in various exhaustive catagories.


sttribute (nominal) data

A type of qualitative data where the only measure is that the item has the attribute or does not. (e.g. marital status, yes/no responses, brand preference (like/dislike))


bar charts

A method of displaying counts of attribute data.


Box plot

A graphical depiction of a data set that uses a box to show the 1st and 3rd quartiles and whiskers to show the minimum and maximum values. Asterisks are used to show outliers  anamoly values determined to be outside of reasonable minimum and maximum.


maximum

the largest value in data set


minimum

the smallest value in a data set


Ranked (oridnal) data

A type of qualitative data in which the measure goes beyond attribute data and actually ranks how much of the attribute the item has. (e.g. Bond ratings Aaa, Aa, A, Baa; brand preference (ranked best to worst))


stratification

A method to "break down" a larger data set into a set of smaller data sets by some factor.


regression analysis

past dara on the relevant variables (independant variables) are used to develop and evaluate a prediction equation (dependant variables)


dependant variable

the variable that is being predicted by regression analysis


independant variable

the variable that is being used to make the prediction in regression analysis


prediction v. explanation

reference to future values v. reference to current or past events


unit of association

an entity that relates two variables


simple linear regression

there is a single independent variable, and the equation for predicting a dependant variable y is a linear function of a given independant variable x


intercept

the constant term that is the predicted value of y when x=( ).


slope

The predicted change in y when there is a oneunit change in x


linearity assumption

the slope of the equation does not change as x changes


smoothers

have been developed to sketch a curve through data without necessarily assumingany particular model


leastsquare method

used to minimize the the total squared prediction error.


NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

THE MOST COMMONLY USED SYMETRIC BELLSHAPED DISTRIBUTION CURVE


DSTRIBUTION

THE PATTERN FORMED AS YOU COLLECT MORE DATA AND THE PICTURE BECOMES MORE REFINED


PARAMETERS

DETERMINED QUANTITIES THAT SPECIFY DIFFERENT FEATURES OF THE DISTRIBUTION


STANDARD DEVIATION

THE RESULTING MEASURE OF SPREAD AFTER TAKING THE SQUARE ROOT OF THE SPREAD


COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION

THE COMMON EXPRESSION OF STANDARD DEVIATION AS A PROPORTION OR PERCENTAGE OF THE MEAN


MEAN ABSOLUTE DEVIATION

OBTAINED BY TAKING THE MEAN OF THE DEVIATIONS AND REGARDING THEM ALL AS POSITIVE


SAMPLE VARIANCE

THE SQUARE OF THE STANDARD DEVIATION


STANDARD NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

HAS A MEAN OF ZERO AND A STANDARD DEVIATION OF ONE


CHISQUARE DISTRIBUTION

TELLS THE PROBABILITY OF THE SAMPLE RESULT (THE ACTUAL NUMBERS) HAVING ARISEN PURELY BY CHANCE


DEGREE OF FREEDOM

THE NUMBERS WILL IDENTIFY A ROW OF THE CHISQUARE TABLE


CHITEST

A STATISTICAL FUNCTION THAT SHOWS THE PROBABILITY THAT THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHAT WE OBSERVE AND WHAT WE WOULD EXPECT ARE DUE TO CHANCE  GIVES US THE EXACT PROBABILITY, WHICH WE CAN THEN USE TO JUDGE WHETHER THE DIFFERENCES ARE REAL OR NOT


STANDARD ERROR OF PROPORTIONS

STANDARD DEVIATION OF A PROPORTION
