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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
operational definition of variables
specifies just how a variable is measured or counted
processes
systematic, repetitive actions whose purpose is to create something of value
rework
undoing and redoing actions taken previously
scrap
complete adandonment of a partly completed task
sampling
a plausible approach to data gathering any time potentially valuable data are to be gathered by complete data would be impossible or uneconomical to gather
experimentation
an approach to data gathering that is a key component of the drive to improve quality of products and processes
frequency table
a table that specifies the distribution of the data of the frequencies in which all the various values occur
relative frequency
the frequency of a value divided by the total number of measurements
qualitative data
Data that counts the numbers or percentage in a particular category that have an attribute or characteristic. (e.g. eye color, brand preference, quality errors)
bar chart
A method of displaying counts of attribute data. - use rectangles to porray the data
quantitative data
Numerical data that measures some variable of interest - often a measurement on a continuous scale where magnitude is significant information. (e.g. amount of an additive in a process, rotational speed of a drill bit, expenditures on advertising)
grouped data
combining of values from a variable that has many possible values
classes
choice of groups
histograms
often used with grouped data, these charts are always used with quantitative data - rectangles are diretly adjacent
skewed
data on a chart with a long tail in one direction or the other
outliers
wild values that are far from the bulk of the data
bimodal
two distinct peaks in a distribution separated by a pronounced valley
stem-and-leaf diagram
A method for displaying data that both shows the data set and a kind of histogram of the data.
time series plot / sequence plot
a graph of the data values of a quantitative variable versus time or collection order
seasonality
a reaoccuring pattern in the data
trend
a gradual increase or decrease in the in the data over time
two-way frequency table / cross-tabulation
an appropriate tabular summary for 2 qualitative variables
stacked bar chart / 100% stacked bar chart
useful graphical displays for 2 qualitative variables
scatterplot
the best tool for visualizing the relationship between 2 quantitative variables
mode
the value or category with th highest frequency in the data - most commonly used with qualitative data
average
mode, median,or mean
median
the middle value of a set of data when the data is arranged from lowest to highest.
mean
the sum of the measurements taken on that variable divided by the number of measurements - only meaningful for quantitative data
trimmed means
a process that eliminates the outliers when determining the mean
outliers
data values that lie far above or below the preponderance of the data
measures of location / measures of central tendancy
mode, median, mean, trimmed means - indicate the center or general location of data values
range
the difference between the largest and smallest values - the simplest measure of variability
mean absolute deviation
the simplest measure of the magnitudes of the deviations - the average of the absolute values of the deviations
variance / mean squared error
the average squared devation - the sum of the squared deviations divided by (n-1)
standard deviation
the positive square root of the variance
interquartile range
25th and 75th percentiles - the values that mark the bottom 1/4 and top 1/4 of the data
e-notation
exponents used in computer outputs
pareto chart
A bar chart that ranks the categories from highest to lowest
pareto chart
A bar chart that ranks the categories from highest to lowest
means chart / x-bar chart
a plot of times versus means of observations taken at those times
statistical control
the state of a process that is operating consistently, wherein the means will vary randomly, but won't show any systematic changes
r chart
a result of when data is taken over time and the range is plotted against time - shows that a problem is developing over time
s chart
a plot of standard deviations against time - a useful quality control tool in assessing whether there has been a change in variability
cusum chart
a chart that keeps track of the cumulative sum of a series of measurements
random variable
a quantitative result from a random experiment that is subject to random variability. it is determined by specifying its possible values and the probability associated with each value.
discrete
variables whose possible values are distinct and seperate, like 0, or 1, or 2, or 3.
continuous
variables whose possible values form a whole interval or range
probability distribution
this for a discrete random variable Y assigns a probability to each value y of the random variable Y. Can be expressed as a formula, graph, or a table.
probability histogram
graph of a probability distribution
cumulative distribution function
for a discrete random variable Y is a function that specifies the probability that Y<=y for all values of y.
expected value
of a discrete random variable Y with probability distribution Py(y) is the probability-weighted average of its possible values
Expected value of Y - E(Y)
a porbability-weighted average, a summary figure that takes into account that relative probabilities of different values of Y - or a long run average of Y
variance of a discrete random variable
the probability-weighted average of squared deviations from the mean (expected value)
pie charts
A method of displaying proportions of attribute data that fell in various exhaustive catagories.
sttribute (nominal) data
A type of qualitative data where the only measure is that the item has the attribute or does not. (e.g. marital status, yes/no responses, brand preference (like/dislike))
bar charts
A method of displaying counts of attribute data.
Box plot
A graphical depiction of a data set that uses a box to show the 1st and 3rd quartiles and whiskers to show the minimum and maximum values. Asterisks are used to show outliers - anamoly values determined to be outside of reasonable minimum and maximum.
maximum
the largest value in data set
minimum
the smallest value in a data set
Ranked (oridnal) data
A type of qualitative data in which the measure goes beyond attribute data and actually ranks how much of the attribute the item has. (e.g. Bond ratings Aaa, Aa, A, Baa; brand preference (ranked best to worst))
stratification
A method to "break down" a larger data set into a set of smaller data sets by some factor.
regression analysis
past dara on the relevant variables (independant variables) are used to develop and evaluate a prediction equation (dependant variables)
dependant variable
the variable that is being predicted by regression analysis
independant variable
the variable that is being used to make the prediction in regression analysis
prediction v. explanation
reference to future values v. reference to current or past events
unit of association
an entity that relates two variables
simple linear regression
there is a single independent variable, and the equation for predicting a dependant variable y is a linear function of a given independant variable x
intercept
the constant term that is the predicted value of y when x=( ).
slope
The predicted change in y when there is a one-unit change in x
linearity assumption
the slope of the equation does not change as x changes
smoothers
have been developed to sketch a curve through data without necessarily assumingany particular model
least-square method
used to minimize the the total squared prediction error.
NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
THE MOST COMMONLY USED SYMETRIC BELL-SHAPED DISTRIBUTION CURVE
DSTRIBUTION
THE PATTERN FORMED AS YOU COLLECT MORE DATA AND THE PICTURE BECOMES MORE REFINED
PARAMETERS
DETERMINED QUANTITIES THAT SPECIFY DIFFERENT FEATURES OF THE DISTRIBUTION
STANDARD DEVIATION
THE RESULTING MEASURE OF SPREAD AFTER TAKING THE SQUARE ROOT OF THE SPREAD
COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION
THE COMMON EXPRESSION OF STANDARD DEVIATION AS A PROPORTION OR PERCENTAGE OF THE MEAN
MEAN ABSOLUTE DEVIATION
OBTAINED BY TAKING THE MEAN OF THE DEVIATIONS AND REGARDING THEM ALL AS POSITIVE
SAMPLE VARIANCE
THE SQUARE OF THE STANDARD DEVIATION
STANDARD NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
HAS A MEAN OF ZERO AND A STANDARD DEVIATION OF ONE
CHI-SQUARE DISTRIBUTION
TELLS THE PROBABILITY OF THE SAMPLE RESULT (THE ACTUAL NUMBERS) HAVING ARISEN PURELY BY CHANCE
DEGREE OF FREEDOM
THE NUMBERS WILL IDENTIFY A ROW OF THE CHI-SQUARE TABLE
CHITEST
A STATISTICAL FUNCTION THAT SHOWS THE PROBABILITY THAT THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHAT WE OBSERVE AND WHAT WE WOULD EXPECT ARE DUE TO CHANCE - GIVES US THE EXACT PROBABILITY, WHICH WE CAN THEN USE TO JUDGE WHETHER THE DIFFERENCES ARE REAL OR NOT
STANDARD ERROR OF PROPORTIONS
STANDARD DEVIATION OF A PROPORTION