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73 Cards in this Set

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a diagram that illustrates the reporting line between units and people within the organization
organizational chart
means that the organization is composed of units that work on specialized tasks using different work methods and requiring employees with unique competencies.
Differentiation
means that the various units must be put back together so that work is coordinated.
Integration
5 Aspects of Vertical Design
1. Hierarchy
2. Span of Control
3. Authority
4. Delegation
5. Centralization/Decentralization
refers to the number of employees directly reporting to a person
span of control
the concentrating of authority at the top of an organization or department.
centralization
means grouping managers and employees according to their areas of expertise and the resources they use to perform their jobs.
functional structure
Divided by tasks
Best for small organizations and organizations that are not widely diversified
Best for organizations that are not spread out geographically
functional structure
= means that all functions that contribute to a product are organized under one manager
product design
Divide it 3 different ways (geography, by customer, by product)
departmentalize
organizes activities around location. Allows organizations to develop competitive advantage in a particular region according to that area’s customers, competitors, and other factors
geographical design
Divide it up by customer
customer design
Starts with your functional Structure then you overlay on top of that teams, usually used in an organization that does a lot of projects with a lot of teams
Organizations that have a lot of projects (We use this at the University)
matrix structure
Did a study with Sears (a tall organization that wanted to move to the flat organization)
He found that the people in a flatter organization had a sense of accomplishment and higher moral. (span of control = number of immediate subordinates that report to one manager)
James C. Worthy
Says that usually for every 3 to 4 employees we need a supervisor but it depends on what level you are in, in the organization
At the lower level you can have a broader span of control
Fayol
Looked at it in terms of relationships (roommates). The more subordinates we have the more…
Have 5 no more than 6 subordinates
Graicunas
are those that contribute directly to the accomplishment of the organization’s primary objective
line activities
are the supporting functions
staff functions
the primary responsibilities (authority) should be with the line
the traditional view
where the line managers must at least talk to the staff personal
compulsory advice
a decision can’t be made until the line and staff both agree
concurring authority
Staff is given specified authority over the line
command authority
Differences in Line and Staff:
1. In general Staff people tend to be better educated than line (accounting, hr, legal, quality control)
2. The Line tends to be more loyal to the organization. (staff people tend to follow opportunities)
2 Basic Views of Formal Authority
classical view
acceptance view
the authority originates at some high level of society and then is passed down
classical view
the authority is based with the employee and not the supervisor and that the employee decides whether or not they will accept the authority and if they choose not to they essentially negate that authority
acceptance view
the acceptance view is based on this zone of indifference
chester barnard
taking a big job and breaking it down into smaller pieces
division of labor
move through various jobs ---helps with boredom, helps with the employees attitudes
job rotation
where you get a wider variety of similar tasks
job enlargement
where you increase not only the job mix but more responsibility and more decision
job enrichment
believe people only work because its something they have to do to survive. They don’t enjoy their work. And assumes they are going to avoid work whenever possible
theory X Manager
Believes that people don’t dislike work but find it as a source of satisfaction. Believes that if an employee is not motivated than it is the managers fault for not providing the right environment. Believes it is the job as manager to help the employees achieve their full potential.
theory Y Manager
believes that there are 5 levels of needs that people go through- and that you satisfy them in order
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy
needs are those for food, clothing, and shelter, which people try to satisfy before all others
Physiological needs
a strong feeling of deficiency in some aspect of a person’s life that creates an uncomfortable tension
need
Developed by Douglas McGregor
theory x manager and theory y manager
include the desire for safety and stability, and the absence of pain, threat, and illness.
safety and security
the need to be liked and feel like you are accepted
belongingness
Are the desire for self-respect, a sense of personal achievement, and recognition from others.
esteem/ego
are the desire for personal growth, self-fulfillment, and the realization of the individual’s full potential
self-actualization
states that a need is a motivator until it becomes satisfied.
satisfaction-progression hypothesis
holds that, when an individual is frustrated in meeting higher level needs, the next lower level needs reemerge and again direct behavior
Frustration-regression hypothesis
has done research on Maslow’s work and has found that there were 3 levels
o Existence
o Relatedness
o Growth
Aldefer
states that two separate and distinct aspects of the work context are responsible for motivating and satisfying employees
2 Factor Theory = Developed by Herzberg
all about looking at the employee and trying to figure out how to motivate the employee!
expectancy theory
the employee’s perception that if they put in the effort they will be able to perform at the level necessary to get the reward
expectancy
the employee’s perception that if they perform they will indeed get the reward.
instrumentality
the value of that reward to the employee (how important it is to the employee)
valence
employees judge whether they’ve been treated fairly by comparing the ratio of their outcomes and inputs to the ratios of others doing similar work.
equity theory
Comes with having a certain level of expertise
expert power
Has a lot to do with respect
referent power
Comes with the position
legitimate power
a position where you can punish people (dock their pay, remove them from their position)—can have long term negative effects
Coercive Power
the ability to reward people (with bonuses, time off)
reward power
you have to be charismatic but you also have to be visionary (ex. I know what we can be, but we have to do this together--???) some sort of transformation or change—a vision of what we can be
transformatoinal leader
leader has to be sincere, personable, animated—it is part of their personality
Charismatic Leader
- It is all about transactions. You get what you pay for. I will give to you but I expect something in return. (equity is more about fairness—this one mainly focuses on exchange)
transactional theory
states that managers can direct the performance of their employees by assigning specific, difficult goals that employees accept and are willing to commit to.
goal-setting theory
turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation
- Hersey Blanchard
delegating
share ideas and facilitate in decision making
participating
the first stages of involving them with decisions (explain decisions and provide opportunity for clarification
selling
if you give someone a job and they do it and do it well – are they mature enough
emotional maturity
Says that we move through this cycle of styles (4 styles) – move through those cells based upon the employees maturity
C. Situational Leadership Theory
people who crave feedback, they like challenges, they need goals, they are self-starters, they are usually very capable, they don’t like working in teams very much
need for achievement
someone who is power hungry, they want to leave a thumbprint, they want to make decision that will be lasting
need for power
the need to be liked and accepted
need for affiliation
The leadership Styles
directive = giving them direction and making sure they are following through
- Supportive = the high need for affiliation—people who are really into relationships
- Participative = when we allow people to be involved—people who want their opinion expressed
- Achievement oriented = people who have high need for achievement
House says that when we are working as leaders with our subordinates we need to—identify the goal, identify the path and clear any obstacles
B. Path Goal Leadership Theory (house)
We have to match the employees style of leadership to the situation
The Friedler Contingency Theory
millennials
the more the merrier, rules are made to be broken, here today gone tomorrow
generation x
like instant gratification, work to live, identify with the lone ranger, have friends in high places
baby boomers
live to work, respect authority, lives large, in charge, tough to teach new tricks