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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
things like a committee, a basketball team
formal group
guys that get to together for a pickup game, a study group
informal group
a work team focuses on orientation to its goals and procedures. Most team members may be anxious about what the team is supposed to do. Understanding leadership roles and getting acquainted to other team member facilitate development.
forming stage
where we are trying to shake out our differences, period when we are jockeying who will be the leader
= begins when competitive or strained behaviors emerge. The storming stage may involve resistance and impatience with the lack of progress.
storming stage
has to do with setting our group culture… our routine, has to do with our culture, time is even a part of it, how we are going to function as a group
= team members become increasingly positive about the team as a whole, the other members as individuals, and what the team is doing. Members increasingly are committed to their team.
norming stage
functioning at our most effective point
= members usually have come to trust and accept each other and are focused on accomplishing their goals.
performing stage
where we dissolve, we are done
= involves terminating task behaviors and disengaging from relationships.
adjourning stage
the stages that groups and teams develop in?
forming stage
storming stage
norming stage
performing stage
adjourning stage
comes out of one group of skills (if we are having an accounting issue, we might put together an accounting team) comes from one single department
= includes members from a single department who have the common goal of considering issues and solving problems within their area of responsibility and expertise.
functional teams
consists of employees from different areas of an organization whose goal is to consider how something can be done better
problem solving work teams
a group of employees who meet regularly to identify, analyze and propose solutions to various types of production problems.
quality circle
a team that is formed to accomplish a specific, highly important goals for an organization.
- They often meet intensively during the course of a few weeks or months and then disband.
task force
pull in people from many departments. (rep from accounting, rep from marketing …) for purposes of design, maybe coming up with a new car, doing research
cross functional team
one that is given lots of leeway. a lot of cross training. They will decide on their own team goals and team leadership.
= consists of employees who work together daily to make an entire product or deliver an entire service.
- To a large extent, the team as a whole—not just its leader—decides what the team needs to do and how to do it.
self-managing team
the patterns of beliefs, expectations, behaviors, and values that are shared by members of the organization
organization culture
where we are teaching new members of our organization about our culture
(you have to walk the talk) How Top Management Behaves (Wal-Mart – sell for less/ friendliness) When the sellers come in and Wal-mart says you have to sell it at our price or you are not going to sell it.
personal enactment
(ex. Becoming a partner in the Accounting Firm and it is celebrated) Where the stock holders came together and celebrated what Wal-Mart was about. --- A rite of passage -- ??
ceremonies and rites
they often go back to the personal enactment to the founder of the organization –a story about them (ex. Federal Express – getting there packages there on time – the lock box story) How Sam Walton started the Five and Dime store in Bentonfield.
everyday patterns of behavior (ex. Expected to be at work at a certain time) How we address one another – routines— (Wal-Mart—Morning meetings – cheers—opening price point)
could be a trademark symbol, could be anything that symbolizes what their culture is about (ex. Wal-Mart—the smiley face) (ex. Balloons in a restaurant --- fun atmosphere—child friendly) The Wal-Mart smiley face
5 elements of culture
personal enactment
ceremonies and rites
refers to the emotional climate of a group.
- The four feelings most likely to influence work team effectiveness and productivity are:
- Trust = Members have confidence in each other.
- Openness = Members are really interested in what others have to say.
- Freedom = Members do what they do out of a sense of responsibility to the group, not because of pressure from others.
- Interdependence = Members coordinate and work together to achieve common goals.
= is the strength of members’ desires to remain on the team and their commitment to it.
are the rules of behavior that are widely shared and enforced by member of a work team. Their main function is to regulate and standardize the behaviors viewed as important by team members.
behavioral norms
exists when three criteria have been met:
1. There is a standard of appropriate behavior for team members.
2. Members must generally agree on the standard
3. The members must be aware that the team supports the particular standard through a system of rewards and punishments.
performance norms
a team member who isn’t contributing fully to team performance but still shares in team rewards
free rider
Norms concerning how to handle conflicts within the team are important for teams engaged in a lot of problem solving and decision making
norms for managing conflict
in an agreement-at-any-cost mentality that results in ineffective work team decision making and may lead to poor solutions.
Important features of the external system to consider include
team design, culture, team member selection, team training, and the reward system.
When teams are designed well, they are more effective in managing their work, their members are more satisfied, and they perform better.
 3 design choices: Team Size, Team Location, and Information Technology
team design
The societal and organizational cultures within which work teams operate are important aspects of the external context.
involves forecasting the organization’s human resources needs and developing the steps to be taken to meet them.
human resources planning
are employees who are hired by companies for specific tasks or short periods of time with the understanding that their employment may be ended at any time. (ex. Part-timers, Free-lancers, subcontractors, and independent professional of many types)
contingent workers
When business is slow, many companies reduce their workforce by
a process that involves deciding which of these recruits should actually be employed and for which positions
employee selection
- The most common sources of information for making selection decisions are:
reference checks
and tests
refers to a formal, structured system for evaluation an employee’s job performance.
Performance Appraisal
managers and their subordinates meet to exchange performance information and discuss how to improve future performance.
performance feedback session
is used by managers to record their judgments of employee performance.
performance rating scale
everyone involved in making appraisals should regularly record behaviors or outcomes
memory aids
includes many forms of social and psychological rewards
nonmonetary compensation
includes direct payments such as salary, wages, and bonuses, as well as benefits such as covering the costs of insurance plans.
monetary compensation
refers to what people believe they deserve to be paid in relation to what others deserve to be paid.
pay fairness
the guaranteed pay offered for a job
base pay
when monetary compensation is linked to the level of performance exhibited by employees it is referred to as…
incentive pay
are generally defined as in-kind payments or services provided to employees for their membership in the organization
employee benefits
states that job applicants and employees should be judged on characteristics that are related to the work that they are being hired to do and on their job performance after being hired, and they should be protected from discrimination based on their personal background characteristics, such as gender, race, ethnicity, religion, and so forth.
equal employment opportunity
signed by Lyndon Johnson in 1964—in affect 1965
o Remains most important piece of Equal Employment Opportunity legislation
o Affects virtually all HR decisions
o Prohibits discrimination based on (protective classes)
 Race
 Color
 Sex
 Religion
 National Origin
- Title VII Civil Rights Act
an exemption that is provided for in title 7 if you can prove that the exception is necessary to maintain operations of your business
bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)
has to do with getting something in exchange for something if you will… (
Quid pro quo
- Parallels Title VII (it is not a part of title 7 but is structured like it)
- Prohibits discrimination against workers
o Between 40-65 (1967)
o Between 40-70 (1978)
o 40 or older (1986)
- Primarily seen in court cases dealing with pay and retirement

= prevents discrimination against persons age 40 and over; states compulsory retirement for some employees
Age Discrimination in Employment Act
we can rate a job in terms of skill, effort, responsibility, and working conditions = legislation requires employers to assess the worth of all jobs and ensure that people doing similar jobs are paid similarly.
comparable worth
= prohibits unequal pay for males and females with equal skill, effort, and responsibility working under similar working conditions.
Equal Pay Act of 1963
(she calls it the “three legged stool and one leg is broken”---- I DON’T GET IT—I think it means that this could crumble at any time?!?!)
- Signed in 1965 by Johnson
- Amended several times since
- Established requirement of federal contractors to develop affirmative action plans
o Affirmative Action Plans = says that we are going to give the advantage to groups that have been discriminated against – make up past injustices
o Equal Employment = we are going to consider everyone absolutely equal
- Recent Supreme Court rulings have raised questions about affirmative action
Executive Order 11246
- Signed into law in 1990
- The most significant one signed into legislation after title 7
- Affects 43 million disabled in U.S. (17% of population)
- Prohibits discrimination against the qualified disabled
Americans with Disabilities Act
something that prevents the individual from carrying out a normal life function –needs to be something that is related to a medical decision – can they do the essential functions of the job?
means very clearly that you have to give them a fair chance if they are qualified (that is why it is important to list the qualifications in the job description)
qualified disabled
allows workers to take up to 12 weeks unpaid leave for childbirth, adoption, or illness of employee or a close family member.
family and medical leave act
(most nonmanagerial employees in private industry) Provides right to organize; provides for collective bargaining; requires unions to represent all members equally.
National Labor Relations
Establishes a minimum wage; controls hours through premium pay for overtime; controls working hours for children
Fair Labor Standards Act
Identifies pregnancy as a disability and entitles the woman to the same benefits as any other disability
the pregnancy discrimination act
a payment made by the government to support a company or an industry
when a company takes extra inventory to market and sells it at a lower price to recover some of costs
- Made illegal by the world trade organization
- Eliminate economic trade barriers and they do this through a various host.
- Set up a number of common laws
- Also recognize that pollution doesn’t just stay in the country that it originates
o They set up laws about pollution to try and be very environmental friendly
- Education has been standardized
- They have set up equal opportunity laws
o Prohibits discrimination against their: Nation, gender, race
- They established the euro
o 13 countries are using the euro
- To be admitted you have to meet certain economic standards, and human rights standards
o They US would not meet the criteria because we allow capital punishment
european union
- Makes the US and Canada a free trade zone
o No quota, tariffs required for moving back and forth.
North American Trade Agreement
makes it illegal for a US corporation to bribe the officials of a government or company for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business
- We are the only country who put this into affect
- One of the few laws that will come and get the manager involved.
US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
can be paid to lower level government officials – it is considered a part of their salary—used to speed up paper work
grease payments
- established as a part of GATT (general agreement on something and trade)
- provides monitoring for trade agreement
- 144 countries that are a part of this trade association
1. It administers the world trade agreements
2. It handles trade disputes
3. Provides technical assistance and training to developing to countries
world trade organization
says that if I make a concession to another country that is a part of GATT then I have to make that concession to all the other countries (ex. Quotas, tariffs)
- Most favored nation principle
cannot be forced to reduce its tariffs without some sort of concessions
- Reciprocity
says that tariffs must be visible to all --- you cannot bury them in the price
Transparency Principle
- Force for change (ex. Industry, research, get to know each other better, and understand)
- Forces against change (ex. Fear of the unknown, don’t want to move, fear of failure)
- And in the middle we have equilibrium
Equilibrium model
American mid to late 1800s
-Father of Scientific Management
- “Big” believer in Division of Labor
-Believed if you study a job, you could find the best possible way of doing it (efficiency)
train them
Rest Breaks were important to rejuvenate
Uncle of Labor Unions
Caused unemployment to increase
* Congress wanted him to stop and they would no longer fund any studies that involved a stop watch
* Incentive Pay
frederick taylor
• American
• Cheaper by the Dozen
• Scientific Management = use science to study the job
• Fatigue and Motion studies (employees with last longer)
Ex. Brick laying
• She was the 1st woman to earn a PH.D. in engineering
• Dissertation L.M. Gilbreth – was invited to be the key not speaker at several gatherings and got shot down for being a woman when she arrived
• She hired a young man to film it and got him to go back to the company with the changes.
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
lived in 1776 – mid 1800s
Worked in Scotland in early 1800s
came upon money and invested it into his “vital machines” (employees)
Reduced work days from 13 hours to 10 ½ hours
provided better housing
got kids underage out of the workplace
motivated employees with colored blocks
robert owen
General Electric – Hawthorne Plant… applied Scientific Management
The Hawthorne Effect = when special attention is given productivity is likely to increase regardless of the change.
Group Norm = made a deal to set level of production
(binging) = slugged on the arm for over producing the limit

Contingency Effect = it all depends on the individual
elton mayo
choosing an alternative that might not be the best alternative. (when you wait till you have 2 or 3 alternatives…you will make better decisions)
strengths, weaknesses, threats, and opportunities
Analyze your company
Swot analysis
our most basic organizational design
= means grouping managers and employees according to their areas of expertise and the resources they use to perform their jobs.
Functional Organizational Structure
Starts with your functional Structure then you overlay on top of that teams, usually used in an organization that does a lot of projects with a lot of teams
Organizations that have a lot of projects (We use this at the University)
Matrix Structure
refers to the number of employees directly reporting to a person
span of control
the process of giving authority to a person (or group or team) to make decisions and act in certain situations.
the concentrating of authority at the top of an organization or department.
the delegation of authority to lower level employees or departments.
move through various jobs ---helps with boredom, helps with the employees attitudes
job rotation
where you get a wider variety of similar tasks
job enlargment
where you increase not only the job mix but more responsibility and more decision
job enrichment
believe people only work because its something they have to do to survive. They don’t enjoy their work. And assumes they are going to avoid work whenever possible.
theory X manager
Believes that people don’t dislike work but find it as a source of satisfaction. Believes that if an employee is not motivated than it is the managers fault for not providing the right environment. Believes it is the job as manager to help the employees achieve their full potential.
theory Y manager
are those that contribute directly to the accomplishment of the organization’s primary objective
line activities
are the supporting functions
staff functions
all about looking at the employee and trying to figure out how to motivate the employee!
= states that people tend to choose behaviors that they believe will help them achieve their personal goals (ex. Promotion or job security) and avoid behaviors that they believe will lead to undesirable personal consequences
expectancy theory
the value of that reward to the employee (how important it is to the employee)
the employee’s perception that if they perform they will indeed get the reward.
the employee’s perception that if they put in the effort they will be able to perform at the level necessary to get the reward
House says that when we are working as leaders with our subordinates we need to—identify the goal, identify the path and clear any obstacles
B. Path Goal Leadership Theory
The leadership Styles in B. Path Goal Leadership Theory
directive = giving them direction and making sure they are following through
- Supportive = the high need for affiliation—people who are really into relationships
- Participative = when we allow people to be involved—people who want their opinion expressed
- Achievement oriented = people who have high need for achievement
- Says that we move through this cycle of styles (4 styles) – move through those cells based upon the employees maturity
C. Situational Leadership Theory
leader has to be sincere, personable, animated—it is part of their personality
Charismatic Leadership
you have to be charismatic but you also have to be visionary (ex. I know what we can be, but we have to do this together--???) some sort of transformation or change
Transformational Leadership
states that managers can direct the performance of their employees by assigning specific, difficult goals that employees accept and are willing to commit to.
goal setting theory
Job Characteristics Model is created by....?
Hachman & Oldham
Job Characteristics Model (use for test – movie--- at least two aspects)
Core Job Dimensions
Skill variety
Task identity
Task significance