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157 Cards in this Set

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Communication circle: What is on the inside? What is on the outside?
Values and attitudes; Personality
What are the two steps to giving good feedback?
1. Describe the behavior of the other person
2. Describe the impact of the behavior on you
Explain the first step of giving good feedback.
You want to describe what the person actually did, i.e. behavior that you can see and hear, because it is a fact.
What kind of statement is "I know what your problem is--you just don't care" ?
Personality statement
What kind of statement is "Jim, three times this week you've turned work in past the deadline we agreed on" ?
Specific Behavior Statement
What is feedback?
Feedback is a way of making a person or group aware of a behavior you see and how that behavior is affecting you.
You should make feedback __________ rather than __________.
descriptive; evaluative
"When I as talking, you were tapping your foot. I found it hard for me to concentrate on what I was saying" is a __________ feedback example.
descriptive
"You were deliberately tapping your foot to distract me" is a ______________ feedback example.
evaluative
Make feedback __________ rather than ___________.
specific; general
"Your clothes are wrinkled and dirty" is a ___________ example.
specific
"You're a sloppy person" is a _____________ example.
general
You should direct your feedback toward what kind of behavior?
A behavior that the person can do something about
What is an example of an instance when the person can do little about their behavior?
If they have an accent that is difficult for you to understand
How should you make sure what you said is understood?
Ask people to tell you their understanding of what you said.
How should you deliver your feedback to a person?
Directly to them. Talk and look at the person. Do not talk about them behind their back.
Ensure the feedback is __________.
Well-timed
How can you make your feedback have a greater impact?
By giving it soon after the situation, the noticed behavior is still fresh in the other person's mind.
"Bob, I really liked that class you just have. I found it interesting and to the point, and you were easy to understand" is an example of ______________ feedback.
Well-timed
"Hey Bob, that class you gave last month was good" is an example of _____________ feedback.
Not well-timed
How much feedback should you give?
Don't bombard them with more than they can handle at a given time. It is easier for someone to deal with and accept a few items than to receive a lot of feedback at one time.
What happens if a person's limit of feedback is exceeded?
The session will likely be a waste of time because the person receiving the feedback will often start feeling defensive.
Feedback that is asked for is more likely to be accepted than what kind of feedback?
Feedback that is imposed on people.
The recipient of feedback has what option?
Checking with others in the group to see if they have observed the same behavior.
Own your feedback by saying "__" not "__"
I; we (don't speak for others)
What was the 1920s Trait/Great Man Theory?
Compared the traits of Julius Caesar, Alexander the Great and Napoleon. All were male, short in stature, sought after positions of leadership, and at some point contracted a venereal disease.
What was wrong the with great man theory?
The research was unreliable because the results could not be replicated.
What have they found about the correlation between IQ and leadership potential?
Positive correlation until about 115, then the correlation collapses.
What have they found about the correlation between height and leadership potential?
No real correlation, but if you say to people "elect a leader" they will often pick someone taller.
What does the arrow that Tennebaum and Schmidt devised look like?
Shows autocratic and democratic leaders on opposite sides. Shows a continuum of task behavior and relationship behavior. Task behavior on the autocratic side, relationship behavior on the democratic side.
What are the characteristics of task behavior?
One way communication; provides structure and defines roles; who what where when how
What is an example of task behavior?
Telling you how to fix a car
What are the characteristic of relationship behavior?
Two way communication; caring behavior and socio-emotional support; mutual trust, respect and rapport
What is an example of relationship behavior?
Teaching you how to work in a team
What is Style 1 as defined by the Ohio State studies?
Low relationship behavior, high task behavior (autocratic)
What is Style 2 as defined by the Ohio State studies?
A lot of both relationship and task behaviors
What is Style 3 as defined by the Ohio State studies?
High relationship behavior and low task behavior (democratic)
What is Style 4 as defined by the Ohio State studies?
Very little of both task and relationship behavior (didn't tell them what to do and gave no praise)
What did the Ohio State studies find is true most of the time?
Style 2 had the best results, Style 4 had the worst results
What did Hersey and Blanchard say about the Ohio State studies?
There must be a missing variable since there was such variability
What is the essence of Hersey and Blanchard's Situation Leadership?
You should vary your style of leadership based on the situation.
What is the situation defined by in Hersey and Blanchard's theory?
The task maturity of your followers
What style did HB say you should use when the follower is at an M1 level of maturity?
Should use Style 1, do a lot of telling. The follower probably won't be doing well for a while, so there won't be much need for praise.
What style did HB say you should use when the follower is at an M2 level of maturity?
Style 2, you will still be doing a lot of telling, but they are starting to understand and earn praise
What style did HB say you should use when the follower is at an M3 level of maturity?
Style 3, let the employees participate, ask your team "how are we going to accomplish this?"
What style does HB say to use when your followers are at a M4 level of maturity?
Style 4, delegating, very little telling, low FREQUENCY of praise and feedback
What are the two parts that determine maturity?
Ability and willingness
What part of maturity are we mainly talking about with HB?
Ability
What does HB say about rewards?
Rewards should be different based on maturity level
What does HB say is the ultimate goal?
Move followers up the maturity scale
What did Dr. Van Eynde say about "telling not yelling'?
Almost never appropriate to yell at people, employees will shut down
What are the 4 steps for moving employees from M1 to M4?
1. Define the task
2. Show them how (if necessary)
3. Take a risk (back off, let them try)
4. If successful, positively reinforce.
(If they are not successful, don't give them a reward)
What do you do with someone who is slipping backwards on the maturity scale?
Increase relationship behavior and invite them to talk about the problem. Also increase task behavior
What should you do with a minimal performer?
Fire them
How can both HB and Blake/Mutan be correct?
Sometimes you should bring your team together (Blake/Mutan) and sometimes you should give individual attention based on expertise level (HB)
What is on the x-axis of the managerial grid? What is on the y-axis?
Concern for production (corresponds to task behavior) and concern for people (corresponds to relationship behavior)
What is Country Club Management?
1 (low concern for production), 9 (high concern for people)
What is the "Modern Milk Theory"?
Contented cows (aka employees) will make more milk (aka will be more productive), ultimately it's all about keeping your employees happy
What does country club management do to creativity?
Stifles it, unproductive
What does country club management do to employee commitment?
Keeps it high, there is little reason for leaving the organization
What does country club management do concerning conflict?
Avoids it; smothers it (don't confront a problem that disturbs the harmony, aka count your blessings); positive thinking ("every cloud has a silver lining")
What is impoverished management?
1 (low concern for production), 1 (low concern for people)
Summarize impoverished management
Main goal is to survive, takes a "do-nothing" attitude; this leaders are present while being absent (which takes skill). This is most often the least productive management style.
What does impoverished management do to creativity?
There is no creativity
How it commitment affected by impoverished management?
The goal becomes only to survive, not to contribute
What does an impoverished manager do concerning conflict?
They remain neutral and avoid taking sides. Might say things like "We need to gather more data" or "Suggest it be returned to committee."
What is "Middle of the Road" Management?
5 (moderate concern for production), 5 (moderate concern for people)
Summarize MotR management
Good organization accommodation with low risk. This type includes 60% of American management today. Based on tradition where past practices are precedent and decisions are made without judgement
What does MotR management do to creativity?
Creativity is low
How is commitment affect by MotR management?
Commitment can be high, can be safe and be a good organization member
How is conflict affected by MotR management?
Conflict is split: talk to one subordinate at a time, compromise (w/ reservations and doubts), bargain, and "transfer" problem individuals
What is "scientific" management?
9 (maximum concern for production), 1 (low concern for people)
Summarize "scientific" management
It is a "machinistic system"- people are like tools for production, like machines
What happens to creativity in "scientific" management?
Can be stimulating but against organizational purposes, aka sabotage, hiding tools, etc
How is commitment affected by "scientific" management?
It is directed against the organization, and causes counter pressures like joining unions
What does "scientific" management do with conflict?
Suppresses it
How is productivity affected by "scientific" management?
In the short run, productivity is up. In the long run, productivity is down.
What did Blake and Mutan find when they broke up their grid into 81 different styles?
Writing a description for 81 different styles was nearly impossible because of overlap between styles.
What is the Path Goal Theory?
The theory suggests that the most effective leaders are those who clarify the paths along which followers can achieve both task-related and personal goals.
What does Path Goal theory address?
The second part of the managerial challenge. "If I'm trying to get my followers to accomplish my goals, shouldn't I help?"
What are the three characteristics of leaders according to the Path Goal Theory?
1. helps leaders progress along the paths
2. removes barriers
3. provides awards for task accomplishment
What is the Servant Theory?
It is a theory, growing in popularity, that says a leader is most effective as a servant to his/her followers
What is transactional leadership?
Viewed as the day-to-day series of transactions that occur between leaders and their employees
What percent of bosses are transactional leaders?
99%, probably every boss we have had thus far has been a transactional leader
What does transactional leadership encourage leaders to do?
To use a leadership style that best fits the situation and causes employees to work hard to meet performance objective.
Which leadership theory would transactional leadership endorse?
Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership
What are the six characteristics of a Transformational Leader?
1. Inspirational leadership- influences the beliefs, values and goals of followers
2. prompts followers to achieve extraordinary performance
3. has vision and integrity
4. charismatic
5. EMPOWERS OTHERS
6. Stimulates imagination and high quality solutions
How common are transformational leaders?
Very few and far between
What is an example of a transformation leader and why?
MLK, did not tell you what to do in his "I have a dream..." speech but rather provided a vision
What it is a team?
a collection of people who regularly interact to pursue common goals
What is teamwork?
the process of people actively working together to accomplish common goals
What is a manager's role as team leader?
serving as the appointed head of a team or work unit
What is a manager's role when they are a facilitator?
Serving as the peer leader and networking hub for a special task force
What is a manager's role as a member?
Serving as a helpful contributing member of a project team
What is a manager's role as a coach?
serving as the external convener or sponsor of a problem-solving team staffed by others
What is synergy?
the creation of a whole greater than the sum of its individual parts
What are some benefits of team and teamwork?
more resources for problem solving, improved creativity and innovation, improved quality of decision making, greater commitment to tasks, higher motivation through collective action, better control and work discipline, more individual need satisfaction
What is social loafing?
The tendency of some people to avoid responsibility by "free-riding" in groups
How do you avoid social loafing?
make individual contributions more visible, reward individuals for their contributions, make task assignments more interesting, and keep group size small
What are the seven sins of deadly meetings?
1. people arrive late, leave early, and don't take things seriously
2. the meeting is too long, sometimes twice as long as necessary
3. people don't stay on topic; they digress and are easily distracted
4. the discussion lacks candor; people are unwilling to tell the truth
5. the right information isn't available, so decisions are postponed
6. nothing happens when the meeting is over; no one puts decisions into action
7. things never get better; the same mistakes are made meeting after meeting
What is a formal team?
a team officially recognized and supported by the organization
What is an informal group?
Unofficial and emerges from relationships and shared interests among members
What is an interest group?
Workers band together to pursue a common cause such as better working conditions
What is a friendship group?
A group that develops for a wide variety of personal reasons, including shared nonwork interests
What is a support group?
The members basically help one another do their jobs or cope with common problems
What is a committee?
Designated to work on a special task on a continuing basis
What is a project team or task force?
Convenes for a specific purpose and disbands when the task is completed
What is a cross-functional team?
Operates with members who come from different functional units of an organization
What does an employment involvement team do?
meets on a regular basis to help achieve continuous improvement
What is a quality circle?
a team of employees who meet periodically to discuss ways of improving work quality
What does a virtual team do?
Members work together and solve problems through computer-based interactions.
What are some tips for leading successful virtual teams?
select team members high in initiative and capable of self starting; select members who will join and engage the team with positive attitudes; select members known for working hard to meet team goals; begin with social messaging that allows members to exchange information about each other to personalize the process; assign clear goals and roles so that members can focus while working alone and also know what others are doing; gather regular feedback from members about how they think the team is doing and how it might do better; provide regular feedback to team members about team accomplishments
What are some potential advantages of virtual teams?
save time and travel expenses, can be easily expanded to include more members; information can be shared among members and store online for continuous updating and access; can work in an efficient manner without interpersonal issues
Why do problems sometimes occur in virtual teams?
Arise because members have difficulty establishing good working relationships
What is a self-managing work team?
Members have the authority to make decisions about how they share and complete their work (also called autonomous work groups)
What are the expected advantages of self-managing teams?
Better performance, decreased costs, and higher morale
What is team building?
a sequence of activities to analyze a team and make changes to improve its performance
An effective team does what three things well?
perform its tasks, satisfy its members, and remain viable for the future
What is the team effectiveness equation?
Team effectiveness = Quality of inputs + (Process gains - Process losses)
What are the inputs that influence team effectiveness?
resources and setting; nature of the task; team size; membership characteristics
What is team diversity?
The differences in values, personalities, experiences, demographics, and cultures among membership.
Easier to manage relationships in what kind of team?
homogeneous (members share similar characteristics)
What is the team process?
The way team members work together to accomplish tasks (also called group dynamics)
What is a norm?
A behavior, rule or standard expected to be followed by team members
What is propinquity?
Joining groups because of their nearness to each other
What is at the top point of the triangle on Homan's Group Interaction Model? Left side? Right side?
Interactions; activities; sentiments
What is the purpose of a formal group?
To transform inputs into outputs
What are the characteristics of a permanent formal group?
Stays together over time and often appears in organization charts
What are the characteristics of a temporary formal group?
Created for a specific purpose and disband once the purpose is accomplished, normally has a designated leader who is accountable for results
What two types of leaders might an informal group have?
1. Task- pushes the group to fulfill the mission
2. Social- Frequently the most well-liked person
What is cohesion?
The extent to which people are attracted to each other and want to remain part of the group
What are the four stages of group development according to Tuchman?
1. Forming
2. Storming
3. Initial Integration
4. Total Integration
What does the forming stage involve?
Determines the real task of the group, determines what behavior is acceptable, and helps a new member decide whether or not they want to stay in the group
What does the storming stage involve?
Struggle for influence, the good thing is that the group is advancing even though there is a power struggle
What does the initial integration stage involve?
time when people are done with fighting, there is an expressed desire to come together as a group, start the process
What does total integration involve?
mature functioning group, group goals trump individual goals
What are the factors that enhance group cohesion?
group homeneity, stable membership, communication, small size, isolation, outside pressure, high status, success, failure
What is groupthink?
Tendency for highly cohesive groups to lose their critical evaluative capabilities
What are the symptoms of groupthink?
illusions of group invulnerability, rationalizing unpleasant and disconfirming data, belief in inherent group morality, stereotyping competitors as weak, applying direct pressure to deviants to conform to group wishes, self censorship by members, illusions of unanimity
What are ways to combat group think?
Avoid seeming partial to one course of action; create subgroups to work on the same problem then share solutions; have members discuss solutions with outsiders then have them report back to the group; assign someone to play the devil's advocate; invite outsiders in to observe and react
How does an autocratic leader lead?
a command and control fashion
What does a human relations leader do?
Emphasizes people over task
What is a laissez-faire leader?
has the attitude of "do the best you can do and don't bother me"
Who came up with the Path Goal theory?
Robert House
What is leadership?
The process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks
What is power?
The ability to get someone else to do something you want done or to make things happen the way you want
What is reward power?
The capacity to offer something of value as a means of influencing other people
What is coercive power?
the capacity to punish or withhold positive outcomes as a means of influencing other people
What is legitimate power?
The capacity to influence other people by virtue of formal authority, or rights of office
What is expert power?
The capacity to influence other people because of specialized knowledge
What is referent power?
The capacity to influence other people because of their desire to identify personally with you
What is a vision?
A clear sense of the future
What does visionary leadership do?
Brings to the situation a clear sense of the future and an understanding of how to get there
What is servant leadership?
Follower-centered and committed to helping others in their work
What is empowerment?
enables others to gain and use decision-making power
What is nominal group technique?
structures interaction among team members discussing problems and ideas
What is the gender similarities hypothesis?
holds that males and females have similar psychological properties