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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
accounts for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work
motivation
an unfulfilled physiological, or psychological desire
need
are physiological, safety, and social needs in Maslow's heirarchy
lower-order needs
are esteem and self-actualization needs in Maslow's heirarchy
higher-order needs
is found in job content, such as a sense of achievment, recognition, responsibility, advancement, or personal growth
satisfier factor
is found in the job context, such as working conditions, interpersonal relations, organizational policies and salary
hygiene factor
the desire to do something better, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks
need for achievement
is the desire to control, influence, or be responsible for other people
need for power
is the desire to establish and maintain good relations with people
need for affiliation
a person's belief that working hard will result in high task performance
expectancy
a person's belief that various outcomes will occur as a result of task performance
instrumentality
the value a person assigns to work-related outcomes
valence
states that behavior followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated; behavior followed by unpleasant consequences is not
law of effect
the control of behavior by manipulating its consequences
operant conditioning
strengthens a behavior by making the avoidance of an undesirable consequence contingent on its occurrence
positive reinforcement
strengthens a behavior by making the avoidance of an undesirable consequence contingent on its occurrence
negative reinforcement
discourages a behavior by making an unpleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence
punishment
discourages a behavior by making the removal of a desirable consquence contingent on its occurence
extinction
positive reinforcement of successive approximations to the desired behavior
shaping
arranging work tasks for individuals and groups
job design
employs people in clearly defined and very specialized tasks
job simplification
the total mechanization of a job
automation
increases task variety by periodically shifting workers between jobs
job rotation
increases task variety by combining into one job two or more tasks previously assigned to seperate workers
job enlargement
increases job depth by adding work planning and evaluating duties normally performed by the supervisor
job enrichment
allows a full time job to be completed in less than five days
compressed work week
give employees some choice in daily work hours
flexible working hours
splits one job between two people
job sharing
involves using IT to work at home or outside the office
telecommuting
is temporary employment for less than the standard 40 hour work week
part time work
are employed on a part time and temporary basis to supplement a permanent workforce
contingency workers