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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
classical approach
earliest attempt to study management in a scientific manner

emphasized the "one right way"
behavioral approach
school of management that emphasizes the improvement of worker efficiency through an understanding of the workers themselves as opposed to an understanding of the work
Management Science
also known as Operations Research

dates from WWII

worker production can be increased by the use of the scientific method and mathematical models of worker tasks
Contingency Approach
the best management style will depend upon or is contingent on the leadership style of the leader in relationship of the specific situation
Theory X
people are lazy
so not like to work
will not accept responsibility
and require close managerial supervision
Theory Y
coined by Douglas McGregor

people enjoy work
Seek challenge
accept responsibility
will work well and willingly if fairly rewarded
Theory Z
also known as Japanese management theory

stresses decision making by means of group consensus

places highest emphasis on achievement of the group rather thanthe individual worker
doing the right thing
effort required to do the right thing
refers to the relationship between input and output

the more output derived from a given amount of input--the greater is the organizational productivity
Frederich W Taylor
father of scientific management
the one right way
used time and motion studies to determine basic work units of a job

also used time and motion studies to determine piece rate in which the worker was paid based on the number of pieces produced
Frank and Lilian Gilbreth
motion studies
therbligs 17 motions examined to improve worker evfficiency
process called job simplification
Henry Gantt
Gantt chart
known for scheduling and controlling work and rewarding workers

pioneered production bonus: bonus pd to workers for exceeding scientifically derived production quota
Marry Parker Follet
conflict resolution guru
don't overmanage employees

her work forms the basis of modern problem solving

aserted that workers will recognize the law of the situation inherent in a management request and would compy
Henri Fayol
Developer of Administrative Theory

1. differentiated between managerial and supervisory levels
gave more status and recognition to managing

2. defined functions of management

3. developed general priciples of management

4. maintained that managers could be taught not necessarily born
Functions of Management
forecasting future events
determining most effective future activities for the company
how authority and responsibility are given to managers (delegation)
how managers direct employees
activities such as:
effective communication
managerial behaviors
rewards and punishments
activities designed to create a relationship among all the organizations efforts (individual tasks) to accomplish a common goal
how managers evaluate performance within the org in relationship to the plans and goals of that org
Principles of Management
Division of labor
unity of command
unity of direction
subordinaiton of the individual
scalar chain
stability of personnel
espirit de corps
division of labor
work is separated into its basic tasks and divided between indivdual workers or work groups that can specialize in the specific task

leads to work specialization
legitimate right to exercise power within the org to obtain worker obedience

closely related to responsibility whci is the accountability for using authority
the applicaiton of punishment for failure to act in accord with the desires of those who possess legitimate authority int eh org
unity of command
each worker should receive orders from only one managfer
this assures a minimum of conflict and promotes clarity of communication
unity of direction
the whole org should have one common goal and seek to accomplish that goal in all its activites
subordination of the individual
the goals and interests of the org are more important than and therefore take precedence over the personal goals and interests of the individual
each employee should receive compensation in accord with a general formula

cost of living
general economic climate and specific business conditions
qualifications of the worker and supply and demand of such workers
levels of productivity achieved
opposite of decentralization
subordinates should be delegated resonsibility with just enough authority to accomplish the assigned task
scalar chain
hierarchical chain of command
the resources of a company, raw materials and workers, must be in the right place at the right time
employees should feel they are being treated fairly and equally
stability of personnel
successful firms retain good managers, and this should be a goal of the org

org practices should encourage long term commitment to the org
management should encourage individual employee initiative which is defined as additional self motivated work effort undertaken for the good of the org
espirit de corps
management should try to encourage harmony and common interests resulting in good relations among employees
Contingency Approach to management
Methodology Step 1
performa a situational analysis

analysis of the current internal conditions of the org
strengths and weaknesses

projection of the future external conditions of the org
oppotunities for the org
threats to the org
Contingency to management
Methodology Step 2
based on the situational analysis formulate a statement of the problem
Contingency Approach to management
Methodology Step 3
state the performance standards that meet the following requirements and the completion of which indicates that the proble has been solved
relevant to the goal
Contingency Approach to management
Methodology Step 4
generate alternative solutions to the problem
Contingency Approach to management
Methodology Step 5
evaluate the possible solutions in terms of their consequences to those involved in and with the org (stakeholders)
Contingency Approach to management
Methodology Step 6
select the best alternative solution that solves the problem and causes the least number of detrimental side effects to the org
Contingency Approach to management
Methodology Step 7
implement a pilot test
Contingency Approach to management
Methodology Step 8
implement the solution
Contingency Approach to management
Methodology Step 9
evaluate the solution
Contingency Approach to management
Methodology Step 10
revise the process as necessary
Contingency Approach to management
Methodology Step 11
begin again with a new situation analysis