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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of how individuals and groups tend to act in organizations
Organizational Behavior
work behavior that goes beyond the job requirements and contributes as needed to the organization's success
Organizational Citizenship
a cognitive and affective evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way.
a positive attitude towards one's job
job satisfaction
Cognitive- thoughts, Affective- feelings, Behavioral- intention to act
Components of Attitude
Loyalty to and heavy involvement in one's organization
organizational committment
The cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by selectinv, organizing, and interpreting information
the process by which individuals screen and select the various stimuli that vie for their attention
perceptual selectivity
errors in perceptual judgement that arise from inaccuracies in any part of the perceptual process
perceptual distortions
the tendenct to assign an individual to a group or broad category and then attribute generalizations about the group to the individuals
an overall impression of a person or situation based on one characteristic, either favorable or unfavorable
halo effect
the tendency to see ones own personal traits in other people
the tendency of perceivers to protect themselves by disregarding ideas, objects, or people that are threatening to them.
perceptual defense
judgements about what caused a person's behavior- either characteristics of the person or of the situation
the set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, objects, or people in the environment
dimensions that describe an individual's extroversion, agreeablenss, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openess to experience
big 5 personality factors
extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience
big 5
the degree to which aperson is sociable, talkative, assertive, and comfortable with interpsonal relationships
the degree to which a person is able to get along with others by being good-natured, cooperative, forgiving, understanding, and trusting
the degree to which a perosn is focuesed on a few goals, thus behaving in ways that are responsible, dependable, persistnet, and acheivement oriented
the degree to which a perosn is calm, enthusiastic, and secure, rather than tense, nervous, depressed, moody, or insecure
emotional stability
the degree to which a person has a broad range of interests and is imaginative, creative, artistically sensitive, and willing to consider new ideas
openness to experience
the tendency to place the primary responsibility for one's success or failure either within oneself (internally) or on outside forces (externally)
locus of control
a physiological and emotional reponse to stimuli that place physical or psychological demonds on an individual
behavior characterized by extreme competitiveess, impatience, aggressiveness, and devotion to work
Type A behavior
behavior patterns that lacks type a characteristics, less conflict, more balanced and relaxed lifestyle.
Type B
task demands, physical demands, role demands, interpersonal demands
causes of work stress
the ability to influence people toward the attainment of org goals
distinguishing personal characteristics, such as interlligence, values, and appearance
a situational variable that makes a leadership style unnecessary or redundant
a situational variable that counteracts a leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors
a leader who calrifies subordinates role and task requirements, initiates structure, provides rewards, and displays consideration for subordinates
transactional leader
a leader who has the ability to motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance
charismatic leader
an attractive, ideal future that is credible yet not readily attainable
a leader distinguished by a special ability to bring about innovation and change
transformational leader
the potential to influence others behavior
the effect a person's actions have on the attitudes, values, beliefs, or behavior of others
power that stems from a formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to it
legitimate power
power that results from the authority to bestow rewards on other people
reward power
power that stems from the authority to punish or recommend punishment
coercive power
power taht stems from special knowledge of or skill the tasks performed by subordinates
expert power
power that results from characteristics that command subordinates' identification with, resepct and admiration for, and desire to emulate the leader
referent power
the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior
the satisfaction received in the process of performing an action
intrinsic reward
a reward given by another person
extrinsic reward
physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization
hierarchy of needs
a process theory that focuses on individuals' perceptions of how fairly they are treated relative to others
equity theory
changing inputs, changes outcomes, distort perceptions, and leave the job
how to reduce inequities
a process theory that proposes that motivation depends on individuals' expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards.
expectancy theory
the application of motivational theories to the structure of work for improving productivity and satisfaction
job design
a job design whose purpose is to improve task efficiency by reducing the number of tasks a single person must do.
job simplification
a job design that systematically moves employees from one job to another to provide them with variety and stimulation
job rotation
a job design that combines a series of tasks into one new broader job to give employees variety and challenge
job enlargement
a job design that incorporates achievement, recognition, and other high-level motivators into the work
job enrichment
the process by which information is exchanged and understood by two or more people, usually with the intent to motivate or influence behavior
the amount of information that can be transimtted during a communication episode
communication richness
the skill of receiving messages to accurately grasp facts and feelings to interpret the genuine meaning.
problems with emotions and perceptions held by employees
interpersonal barriers
the meaning of words and the way they are used
the systematic process through which managers regulate organizational activities to make them consistent with expectations established in plans, targets, and standards of performance
organizational control
control that focuses on human, material, and financial resources flowing into the organization also known as preliminary or preventive
feedforward contorl
control that consists of monitoring ongoing activities to ensure that they are consistent with standards
concurrent control
control that focuses on the org's outputs, aka postaction or output control
feedback control
an organizational unit under the supervision of a single person who is responsible for its activity
responsibility center
a budget that outlines the anticipated and actual expenses for a responsibility center
expense budget
a budget that id's the forecasted and actual revenues of the organization
revenue budget
a budget that estimates and reports cash flows on a dailty or weekly basis to ensure that the company has sufficient cash to meet its obligations
cash budget
a budget that plans and reports investments in major assets to be depreciated over several years
capital budget
a budgeting process in which middle adnd lower level managers set department budget targets in accordance with overall company revenues and expenditures specified by top management
top-down budgeting
a budgeting process in which lower-level managers budget their departments' resourc needs and pass them up to top management for approval
bottom-up budgeting
a financial statement that shows the firm's financioal position with respect to assets and liabilities at a specific point in time
balance sheet
a financial statement that summarizes the firm's financial performance for a given time interval; sometimes called a profit and loss statemtn
income statement