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30 Cards in this Set

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What are the three steps of a performance appraisal?
Identification, measurement, and management.
What is identification?
determining which areas of work the manager should be examining when measuring performance
What is measurement?
centerpiece of the appraisal system, entails making managerial judgments of how "good" or "bad" employee performance was
What is management?
overriding goal of any appraisal system
What are the two uses of performance appraisal
Administrative and developmental
What is a performance dimension?
aspect of job performance that determines effective job performance
ex. quality of work done, quantity of work done, interpersonal effectiveness
What are the typical numbers of measuring performance?
1...5
When using measurement tools what are the two categories you should look at?
Type of judgment required
Focus of the Measure
What are the two types of judgments required?
relative and absolute
What is relative judgment?
appraisal format that asks suprevisor to compare a employee's performance to the performance of other employees doing the same job; differentiate workers, hard to quantify differences
What is an absolute judgment?
appraisal format that asks supervisors to make judgments based soley on performance standards; rating employees on each dimension, not comparative
What are trait appraisal instruments?
An appraisal tool that asks a supervisor to make judgments about worker characteristics that tend to be consistent and enduring. Focus on person rather that performance...ex. decisiveness, reliability, energy, loyalty
What are behavior appraisal instruments?
An appraisal tool that asks managers to assess worker's behaviors. concrete and more legally defensible
What are outcome appraisal instruments?
asks managers to assess the results achieved by workers such as total sales or # of products produced (MBO)
What is MBO?
goal-directed approachto performnace appraisal in which workers and their supervisors set goals together for the upcoming evaluation period.
What is a problem with MBO?
results at any cost mentality
What are two key factors in rating employees effectively?
raters' ability and motivation levels
What is rater error and bias?
error in performance appraisals that reflects consistenet biases on the part of the rater
What is a halo error?
rate similarly across all dimensions:
supervisor makes overall judgment of employee and conforms rating to that judgment or supervisor may make all ratings consistent with the worker's performance level on a dimension that is important to the supervisor
What is restriction of range error and what are the three types?
Rates all workers similarly
Central tendency, leniency, severity
What is comparability?
the degree to which the performance ratings given by various supervisors in organization are similar
What is frame-of-reference training?
type of training that presents supervisors with ficticious examples of worker performance, askst the supervisor to evaluate the workers in the examples and then tells them what their rating should have been.
What is the effect of liking?
can cause error in performance appraisals based on this; unconscious
What is one tool that managers can use as a precuation to evaluation.
Performance diary; diaries are not gurantees agains bias, and shouldn't be used in place in place of intervention and discussion
What is the rational perspective on appraisal?
Assumed that values of each worker's performance can be estimated.
Goal-accuracy
Focus-measurement
worker's defined as clearly as possible
What is the political perspective on appraisal?
value of a worker's performance dpends on the agenda or goals of the superviosr
Goal-utlitiy or max. of benefits/cost
focus- management
what is being assessed can be bent to current agenda
Most organizations: political or rational?
political
Performance appraisals concerning teams:
individual contribution to team performance and performance of team as a unit
Always evaluate the individual
What are some legal issues with performance appraisals?
legality of tests..???
What do judges look at favorably in terms of performance appraisals?
use of job analysis, providing written instructions, allowing employees to revenue appraisal results, agreement among multiple raters, the presence of rater training, applea to higher manager