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145 Cards in this Set

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What are the 5 needs in Maslow's Hierarchy of needs? (know what each need is & be able to recognize what need is being satisfied in a give situation)
1) Physiological
2) Safety
3) Social
4) Esteem
5) Self-actualization

See pg. 6
According to Maslow, what motivates people?
the lowest unsatisified need in the hierarchy
What does Maslow believe about satisfied needs?
once satisfied, no longer motivational
If a need is frustrated, what will the employee experience, according to Maslow? Can the employee still be motivated if his/her needs are frustrated?
-Employee would experience stuckiveness.

-No
What needs are typically unsatisfied in most organizations? Why is this the case? What would help satisfy these needs?
Esteem and Self-Actualization because they are specialized jobs. Enrichment or craft jobs will satisfied those needs.
What need is the highest level of personal motivation? How many people reach this level? Is it ever fully satisfied or fulfilled?
-Self-Actualization

-Few reach this level

-No, this is not ever fully satisfied ro fulfilled
What is peak experience?
momentary satisfaction of Self-actualization
What does the research say about Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
It has not been able to find more than 2 or 3 needs satisfied, instead of 5.
What is a cafeteria style benefits plan?
Where the person can pick and choose the benefits to fit their need.
How would you apply Maslow's theory of motivation, if you were a manager?
"Different strokes for different folks!"
What are the 3 needs in ERG theory that can motivate behavior?
Existence, Related, and growth needs
How do the 3 need in ERG theory match up to the 5 needs in Maslow'w hierarchy of needs?
Existence needs--similar to physiological and safety needs

Relatedness needs--similar to social and esteem

Growth needs--similar to self-actualization
What does Alderfer's ERG theory say about a satisfied need?
It can still motivate behavior
What is the frustration-regression principle in ERG theory? What does it say about need frustration?
when a higher level needs aren't satisfied, the indivueidual regresses and tries to gain additonal gratification at lower level of needs
What does Herzberg say is the opposite of job satisfaction? The opposite of job dissatisfaction?
Job satisfaction--No job satisfaction

Job dissatisfaction--No job dissatisfaction
What is a motivator factor and what is it related to in 2-factor theory? (be able to recognize what are motivators on the job). Motivators are like what need in Maslow's hierarchy?
Motivators are related on the job: achievement, recognition, and work itself, responsibility, advancement, and personal growth.

Self-actualization and esteem are motivators in Maslow's hierarchy
What is a hygiene factor and what is it related to in 2-factor theory? (be able to recognize what are hygienes on the job). Hygienes are like what need in Maslow's hierarchy?
-Hygiene Factors are directly related to job context (work setting)

-Related to company policies and administration, supervision, relations with one's supervisors and peers.

-Physiological, Safety, and Social
What does Herzberg advocate as the only way to motivate employees (i.e., make them job satisfied)?
Job enrichment
What is the effect of good pay, good supervision, good benefits, etc...on job dissatisfaction? Can hygiene factors motivate people according to Herzberg?
-No job dissatisfaction

-No
If I gave you an example of a person holding a certain type of job (e.g., specialized or enriched) and having either good or poor hygienes (e.g., pay, benefits, and supervision), you will be able to tell me what the person is experiencing in terms of job satisfaction or no job satisfaction & job dissatisfaction or no job dissatisfaction).
k
What are the problems with Herzberg's 2-factor theory?
People's hygience are other people's motivators, Self-serving bias (interviews using the critical incidents techniques)
What is the basic premise behind goal setting theory?
assumes that there is a direct relationship between our intentions (goals) and our behavior (performance/motivation)
What does SCARF mean in goal setting theory?
S-specific goals
C-challenging but achievable goals
A-accepted by the person
R-rewarded
F-feedback
How does one build greater of acceptance of specific and challenging goals?
Rewards for goal attainment, participation and goal setting, and autocratic tell-and-sell method
How does participation in goal setting increase performance?
Participation-->greater goal acceptance-->improved performance
When does participation in goal setting not work?
when the organization climate is distrustful, when management and labor do not trust each other, when participation does not fit the manager's style, and when the employees do not want to participate
What is the autocratic tell-sell method of goal setting? When do you use it?
Managers who like make all the decisions then RIV: reasons, importance, and value. this works depending on the situation.
In reinforcement theory, what is Thorndike's law of effect?
positive consequences tend to increase the behavior while negative or no consequences decrease the behavior.
What is positive reinforcement? What does it do to the frequency of the behavior?
providing a positive consequence when a behavior occurs

It increases the frequency of the behavior
What is negative reinforcement? What does it do to the frequency of the behavior?
taking away a negative consequence when a behavior occurs

It increases the frequency of the behavior
What is extinction? What does it do to the frequency of the behavior?
no consequence when a behavior occurs

it decreases the frequency of the behavior
What is an extinction spike?
an increase in frequency of the undesirable response/behavior for a period of time soon after extinction has began.
What is punishment? What does it do to the frequency of the behavior?
providing negative consequences

Decreases the frequency of the behavior
What are the problems with punishment?
-it doesn't replace the bad behavior with a good behavior

-it may result in aggression against the punishment, negative feeling, apathy on the part of the workers
What is the leave-alone zap trap? What does the manager do when you perform well? What does the manager do when you perform poorly or make a mistake?
-No consequences (extinction) for high performance

-Nothing

-punishes you in order to get you to stop with the undesired behavior. (the manager zaps you)
What kind of work climate is created by the leave-alone zap trap manager?
avoidance and fear
How do you overcome the leave-alone zap trap as a manager?
manage by walking around and through monitoring behavior
How many positive consequences to every negative consequence does it take for your subordinate not to perceive you as a punisher, in general?
4 to 1
What is the jelly-bean motivation trap? How does it affect motivation and performance? How do you overcome it? Rewards are only meaningful when they are tied to what?
-Jelly-bean motivators give something for nothing

-Everybody gets the same positive consequence, regardless of their performance

-Rewards based upon good behavior

-Rewards are tied to good performance
What is the rewarding on assumed needs trap? What do you turn a reward into when you fall into this trap? How do you avoid this trap?
-Rewarding people based upon hunches or their hypothetical guesses

-

-ask people what it takes to get them motivated
What is the "concern of equity" theory?
fairness in the workplace
What are the 4 basic postulates or tenants of equity theory?
1)create and maintain a state of equity.
2)when a state of inequity is perceived it creates tension. (Ind. reduces or eliminates inequity)
3)the greater the magnitude of perceived inequity, the greater the motivation to act to reduce the state of tension.
4)Ind. should perceive an unfavorable inequity more redily than a favorable one.
What is the difference between equity and equality
-Equity-the more you do, the more you get

-Equality-equal terms of outcomes
What is more important in equity theory: perception or reality?
perception
What is favorable inequity? Unfavorable inequity?
-Something that benefits you

-Something that hurts you
When faced with unfavorable inequity, what are the different ways on can use to restore equity?
1)reduce quality/quantity of work
2)convince boss for raise
3)convince co worker to reduce his inputs/ outputs
4)quit
5)select a diffrent comparison other
6)distort your imputs or outcomes
When faced with unfavorable inequity, how do people normally restore equity? (behaviorally or cognitively)
behaviorally
When faced with favorable inequity, how do people restore equity? (behaviorally or cognitively)
cognitively
What is entitled? Equity Sensitive? Benevolent? What does each type perceive as fair?
entitled: more for me
equity sensitive: everyone fair
benevolence: do more for less
Out of equity sensitive, entitled, and benevolent; which is most prevalent? Least prevalent?
Most-Equity Sensitive

Least-Benevolent
What are the problems with equity theory?
depends on the situation
What is leadership?
the art of influencing individuals or groups to assist you willingly and to pursue in accomplishing organizational goals.
What is the difference between management and leadership?
Management-is planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling.

Leadership is only one function of management.
What is the difference between leadership and supervision?
leadership is based on informal authority

supervision is based on format authority
What is reward power?coercive power? legitimate power? expert power? referent power? (be able to recognize when each is being used in a situation)
-Reward power-the capacity to allocate rewards to subordinates who comply with a manager's request.

-Coercive power-the capacity to dispense punishments to subordinates who don't comply with a manager's request.

-Legitimate power-the right of the manager to request reasonable actions from subordinates and expect that they will comply.

-Expert power-special knowledge or expertise.

-Referent power-the identification of the subordinate with the manager.
What power bases does a leader use? supervisor use?
Leaders use expert and referent power.

Supervisors use reward, coercive, and legitimate power
Which of the power bases best exemplifies supervision? leadership?
Legitimate power best exemplifies supervision.

Referent power best exemplifies leadership
What is the relationship between the 5 power bases and productivity?
Legitimate and reward power has no significant relation to productivity.

Coercive power has a negative relation to productivity.

Expert and referent power have a positive relation associated with productivity.
What are Theory X and Y? How do they affect leadership?
-Theory X assumes people dislike work; Autocratic

-Theory Y assumes people like work; Democratic
What are the beliefs that underlie Theory X and Theory Y?
Theory X assumes that people dislike work. Theory Y assumes that people like work.
What is meant by the phrase "these theories (x and y) can become self-fulfilling prophecies?"
They have the Pygmalion Effect.

Pygmalion effect is increasing a manager's expectations of subordinates' performance actually improves performance.
What is the basic idea behind trait theory of leadership?
to determine what specific traits made a person an effective leader
What is the great man trait theory? Learned traits theory?
Great man theory-that people are born with leadership traits

Learned traits-that people have to learn the learning trait
In general, what has the research revealed about traits separating leaders from followers?
Leaders tend to be slightly taller, slightly more intelligent, slightly more visible, and slightly more socially adaptive.
What trait does reliably tells you if someone will be a leader or not?
Learned traits theory
Why was the Learned traits theory not identified until recently?
Behavioral
What is the focus of behavior theory (also known as Ohio States Studies)?
To determine the relationship between effective leader behavior and subordinate satisfaction and performance
What is initiatin structure? consideration? (be able to recognize these behaviors in a situation)
Initiating structure-task-oriented for the purpose of goal attainment

Consideration-people-oriented
Which combo. of behaviors did behavioral theorists originallly think would be the best in all situations?
High consideration, high initiating structure
What is the major drawback of the behavioral theory (Ohio State Studies) as originally proposed?
It started off as one best way theory and therefore paid limited attention to the situation. In the end, it is became a contingency theory leadership.
What combination of behaviors is actually the best in behavioral thery?
depends on the situation
What combination of behaviors does a Theory X manager exhibit? Theory Y exhibit?
-Theory X manager-Hi IS, Lo C

-Theory Y manager-Lo IS, Hi C

(They are the opposite of one another)
In Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership, work group performanfce is a function of what?
1) a person's leadership style

2) the "favorableness" of leadership situation
According to Fiedler, what is your leadership style based on? As a result, does Fiedler believe you can change your leadership style?
-Based on a person's personality

-No
What does Fiedler believe about leadership training that teaches you how to be flexible and change you style to match the situation?
Believes it is a waste of time
What scale did Fiedler develop to measure your leadership style?
Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC)
If you LPC score is low, what does that mean? What type of leader are you?
-Negative terms

-You are a task-oriented leader
If you LPC score is high, what does that mean? What type of leader are you?
-Positive terms

-You are a relationship-oriented leader
What are the 3 factors that determine situational favorableness? Which is most important? Least important?
1) Leader-member relationships
2) task-structure
3) position power

Most important-leader member

Least important-position power
When is a high LPC leader is the best? Low LPC? Middle LPC? Why is this the case according to Fiedler?
-High LPC-moderately favorable situations

-Low LPC-High & Low favorable situations

-Middle LPC-seemed to be best across all situations

-It attempts to reconcile trait theory leadership with the idea of different situational requirements.
What is another name for middle LPC leadership?
Moderately favorable situations
What are the implications of Fiedler's contingency theory for managers
1) there are those who perform better in some leadership situations, but not all situations

2)Anyone can be a leader by carefully selecting those situations that match his/her leadership style

3)Leader match-focuses on training the leader to change the favorability of the situation.

4)Leadership effectiveness can be enhanced by "engineering the job to fit the manager"
What does Fiedler recommend as a way to improve leadership effectiveness when a leader finds herself in a situation that does not match her style?
engineering the job to fit the manager
What is Vroom and Yetton's normative theory of leadership really a theory of?
Decision-making
WHat is the basic idea behind Vroom and Yetton's normative theory of leadership?
Normative guidelines for how decisions ought to be made ina specific situation
What is AI? AII? CI? CII? and GII?
-Autocratic I (AII)-manager solves problem alone

-Autocratic II (AII)-Manager obtains information from subordinates before making decision alone.

-Consultative I (CI)-Manager shares problems with subordinates individually.

-Consultative II (CII)-Manager shares problems with subordinates as a group.

-Group Participation (G)-Manager shares problems with subordinates and together they make a decision.
What two situational factors in Vroom and Yetton's normative theory of leadership determine the best decision making method for the situation?
Quality and acceptance
What is a feasible set?
each problem type is associated with one or more decision-making method for the situation
What is the minimum man hours rule and the employee development rule? When do you use these rules? (be able to apply these to a situation)
Minimum man hours-this rule minimizes the time expended an a decision

Employee development rule-a manager should choose the most participative decision making method in a feasible set

depends on the situation
What are the problems with Vroom and Yetton's normative theory of leadership?
1)There are more than 5 decision-making models

2)Should other characteristics thand decisions quality and subordinate acceptance be included as questions

3)Bounded rationality-it is possible that managers aren't sufficiently rational to apply normative theory
What are the basic ideas behind reciprocal theory of leadership? What makes the theory reciprocal?
-Influence is mutual between supervision and subordinate

-The leader will choose either leadership or supervision depending upon whether the subordinate is perceived to be a member of the in-group or the out group.
What determines whether a subordinate will be lead or supervised by his manager in reciprocal theory?
-
What has the research revealed when the manager is taught to lead the out-group as well as the in-group?
-The out-group performs just as well as the in-group.
What is the basic idea behind implicit theory of leadership?
Implicit beliefs or stereotypes about personal qualities and behavior of "typical" leaders.
What is the basic idea behind substitues for leadership?
Factors in the situation that neutralize employee satisfaction and performance (Anti-leadership theory)
What does substitutes for leadership say about leaders receiving credit and blame?
It suggests that leaders sometimes receive credit and blame for their subordinates' behaviors that they don't deserve it.
What factors substitute for leadership, making it irrelevant to subordinate satisfaction and performance?
Knowledgable and experienced employees, technology
How do formal and informal groups differ?
Informal groups-doesn't support the organization's goals

Formal groups-deliberately created by the corporation to get things done
What personal needs are satisfied by groups?
Social, esteem, security, and reality
What is a reality need?

(on test)
when one uses the group to check out the validity of one's perception
What are the 5 stages of group development and what happens at each stage?
1)Forming-orientation of employees likely to occur; ground rules are established

2)Storming-intragroup conflict/hostilities/
interpersonal conflict likely to occur here as member vie for certain roles

3)Norming-group starts to feel cohesive during this stage

4)Performing-decisions are made with the full participation of all members and after a comprehensive discussion of all the alternative.

5)Adjourning-task is complete, duties are terminated, and things are wrapped up.
At what stage is group cohesiveness the greatest?
Norming
At what stage is intragroup and interpersonal conflict most likely to occur?
storming
At what stage is the group likely to make the best decisions?
Performing
Which stage is most difficult to achieve?
Performing
What is the relationship between group size and effectiveness?

(on test)
Group size-5-7 people

Effectiveness (Social loafing)-the more people, the group participation decreases
What is cohesiveness?
willingness or desire for a member to remain part of a group
What does cohesiveness have to do with group's influence over its members?
The greater the cohesiveness, the greater the performance
What are the factors that increase and decrease cohesiveness?

(on test)
Increase-small group size, history of group success, external threat to the group, attractive group goals, high public image (high status group), lots of time spent together

Decrease-large group size, group failure, unattractive group goals, low public image (low status group), disagreeable group demands/tasks, little time spent together
What are the benefits and drawbacks of highly cohesive groups?
Benefits-higher morale or general job satisfaction, increase member sense of security, members have higher self-esteem, less absenteeism and turnover, more and better group interaction, greater interpersonal coordination

Drawbacks-groupthink, can limit creativity and originality-thus, they miss opportunities
What is a norm?
standard of behavior accepted by a group's members

(Should-prescriptive)
(Shouldn't-unscriptive)
How do norms and cohesiveness interact to determine a group's performance?
The relationship between cohesiveness and performance is moderated by the group's performance norms.
Jelly-bean motivation encourages what type of individual?
Entitled
According to equity theory, ________________.
when you treat people fairly in reality, everyone ___________
When employees are faced with favorable inequity what may occur?
1) Reduced quality/quantity performance

2) Extended work breaks

3) Stealing from employer

4) Increased absenteeism and turnover
Under jelly-bean motivator, and entitled low performer will perceive ___________, a benevolent high performer will perceive __________, and the equity sensitive good performer will perceive _____________.
Equity, Equity, unfavorable inequity
When one rewards based on assumed needs, the positive reinforcement may be considered______________by the punishment.
Positive reinforcement, extinction, and punishment
What is not an aspect of an effective goal setting program in all situations?
Subordinate
The autocratic "tell and sell" method works to improve employees performance by increasing __________.
The specificity of goals
When a worker starts performing well to avoid being fired, this is known as ___________.
negative reinforcement
What is not true concerning punishment?
It replaces the bad behavior with a good behavior
What is true concerning reinforcement theory?
The consequence for the behavior deterimes frequency

The person receiving the consequence determines whether positive or negative

When using extinction, the behavior may increase before it decreases
A leave-alone zap manager gives high performance, no consequences. Given what we know about extinction spikes, you could expect high performance to ___________
increase but then decrease
A manager believes that it is better to be feared than to be loved is what kind of power?
coersive power
What power based is not related to productivity?
Reward and legitimate power
What power bases best represents supervision?
legitimate power
What is not a characteristic of a Theory Y individual?
Likes a manger who initiates a lot of structure
Theory X managers....
are an autocratic manager because they make all the decisions for subordinates who are lazy.
Which combination of leadership behaviors would a Theory Y managers use?
Low Inititiating structure, high consideration
According to Fiedler leadership training is for the most part ____________________________________.
A waste of time and should teach leaders how to change the situation at the time
What is not true about Fiedler's contingency theory?
High LPC perform best in very favorable conditions
A leader shares a problem with individual subordinates one at a time, gets their suggestions about how best to solve it and then makes the decision alone. This leader is using which decision making method? (AI, AII, CI, CII, and GII)
CI
In Vroom and Yetton's normative theory of leadership, which determines the feasible set?
Decision Quality and Subordinate acceptance
Given the feasible set (AI, AII, CI, CII, and GII), which would one pick is they were using the minimum man hours rule?
AI
What are the three needs identified by McClelland that can motivate an individual's behavior?
-Need for achievement

-Need for affiliation

-Need for power
What is involved with each of these three needs?
-Need for achievement measures a person's clear, self-set, moderately difficult goals with feedback given based on goal achievement.

-See pg 189-190
What is social learning theory?
a
What are the steps in the social learning process?
-
What is the Pygmalion effect?
Increasing a manager's expectations of subordinates' performance actually improves performance
What does Fiedler's Cognitive Resource Theory say about stress and leadership effectiveness?
In stressful situations, the leader tended to focus on the source of the stress instead of the situation, thereby leading to ineffective performance.
What's the general message to leaders from Cognitive Resource Theory?
In high stress situations, leaders should rely on their experience; in low stress situations, they should rely on the intelligence.
What is transformational leadership?
an inspirational form of leader behavior based on modifying followers' beliefs values and ultimately their behavior.
What is transactional leadership?
more closely related to both behavioral and situational leader behaviors
What are the different ways group norms are communicated?
-explicit statements by the group leader

-explicit statements by group members

-critical events in the group's history

-past group experiences
What is groupthink?
a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesivein-group, when members' strivings for unajimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action.