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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
product form of divisional structure
all forms that contribute to a product report to one manager
-more flex. suitable for unstable environments
Geographic form of divisional structure
allows the company to better focus on the customers needs
customer
allows the company to better focus on customer
-duplication of activities in many areas is expensive
network
-a web of independent, mostly single function firms
-interealtionships amoung firms
high involvement
a type of organization in which top management ensure that there is consensus about the direction in which business is heading
-
high involvement
flat organizational form, decentralized focuse on customer or product
strategic alliance
formal relationship created among independent organizations with purpose of joint pursuit of mutual goals
line departments
units that deal directly with the organizations primary goods and services
-responsible for princible activities
staff departments
-units that support line departments
-accountong.PR. HR departments
Matrix organization
dual reporting relationships, manggers report to 2 superiors functional and divisional manager
Disadvantages of Matrix organization
unity of command principal:should only have one boss
-creates confusion and difficult interpersonal relat.
Advantage of matrix organization
higher degree of flexibility and adapaptibility
-extensive communications and meetings
Principle
everyone should have rights that should be respecte in all decisions and actions
Unethical
an actions that violates an individuals moral rights
ulitarian theory
do the consequences of actions produce the greatest good for the greatest number
-Problems measurement and calcualtion
Distributive Justice Cannon
Treat people similarly who are similar in jobs (v.v)
-differences should be proportionate to job related differences
Consistent Administrations Cannon
rules should be clearly stated and consistently applied and consistently/imapartially enforced
When are actions unethical according to the theories of rights, ulitarian, and justice
theories of rights-violates any 5 rights
ulitarian-ends don't justify means
justice-if actions are not fair
Steps in using all three ethical theories together
1. gather facts
2.decide if ethical in all 3 theories
3. if not apply principle of double effect
Principle of double effect
The intent is to achieve the good effect, good effect is much greater that the bad effect
Teology
considers an act to be morally right or acceptable if if produces a desired result
Egoism
doing the act that provide the greatest good for oneself
dentology
focuses on rights of individual, equal respect
relativism
bases ethical behavior on the opinions and behaviors relevant of other people
Preconventional
people make descions based on concrete rewards and punishments and immediate self interests
conventional
people conform to the expectations of ethical behaviors of groups
Principled
people take a broader perspective in which they see authority, laws, and norms
-follow their self chosen principles
Four levels of social responsibility
-Economic
-Legal
-Ehthical
-Voluntary
Economic responsibilities
produce goods at a price that perpetuates the business and satifies its obligations to investors
Legal responsibilities
to obey laws
Ethical responsibilities
meeting other social expectations
voluntary responsibilities
additional behaviors and activities that society finds desirable and that the values of business report
culture concept
set of shared values, beliefs and behaviors learned as a member of a social group
three characteristics of organizational culture
learned, shared and transmitted
3 levels of organizational culture
Artifacts, Expoused values, and basic underlying assumptions
Expoused values
publicly announced value a group claims to hold
Law of Queue
Inaccuracies
Ideal values
-just know what to do
-deliberate deception(claim values but don't hold them)
-sometimes impossible values
Basic underlying assumptions
beliefs about the most fundamental aspect of reality (time, space and human nature)
-unconscious taken for granted
Cultural artifacts
symbols:columns
heroes:brad pitt
stories: lady with bad tires
slogans: come on home tigers
ceremonies and rituals: venture take pledge
phyical artifacts:college of business portraits
Polychronicity
the extent to which people prefer to be engaged in two ro more tasks simultaneously
Competing values model
Group
-Internal and flexible
-Value: teamwork, development and morale
CVM
Adhocracy
-External and flexible
-Risk taking,growth and creativity
CVM
Rational
-External and controlling
Value: Profitability, efficiency and goal achievement
CVM
Hierarchy
-Internal and controlling
-Value:stability,rules, and procedures and orders
Low cost strategy
Rational-culture emphasizing efficiency and frugality
Differentiation
Adhocracy-a culture that emphasizes innovation and uniqueness
paradigm
set of rules and regulations that define boundaries
good/bad effect of paradigm
-tells you where and how to look for solutions
-limits creativity outside of the boundaries
Three types of creativity
creations, synthesis, modification
creations
creating something out of nothing
synthesis
relating 2 or more previously unrelated phenomena (fish tacos)
modification
-act of altering something that already exists
what are the four purposes of modification?
1. perform a function better
2. perform a new function
3. perform in a different setting
4. be used by someone new
General reasons resist change
1.Human Inertia
2.Timing
3.Surprise
4.Peer pressure
Specific reasons to resist change
1. Self interest
2. Misunderstanding
3. Different Assessment
force field analysis
Identify situation/problem
Study it
Determine which force are driving change and which forces are restraining change
Lewin's Rule
It is better to reduce the forces restraining change than to increase the force driving it
Reactive change
response that occurs under pressure
-problem driven change
Proactive change
a response that is intiated before a gap has occured
unfreezing
(resistance to change)
realizing the current practices are inappropitate and that new behavior must be enacted
moving
(resistance to change)
institute change
refreezing
strengthening the new behaviors that support change
adapters
take the current industry structure as given
shapers
try to change the structure of their industry creating a future competitive landscape of their own design