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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
refers to the specific arrangement of physical facilities. Facility-layout studies are necessary whenever:
facility layout
when are facility studies required?
a new facility is constructed,
there is a significant change in demand or throughput volume,
a new good or service is introduced to the customer benefit package, or
different processes, equipment, and/or technology are installed.
minimize delays in materials handling and customer movement
maintain flexibility
use labor and space effectively
promote high employee morale and customer satisfaction
provide for good housekeeping and maintenance
enhance sales as appropriate in manufacturing and service facilities
Purposes of layout studies
is an arrangement based on the sequence of operations that are performed during the manufacturing of a good or delivery of a service.
A product layout
what are the advantages of product layout?
include lower work-in-process inventories, shorter processing times, less material handling, lower labor skills, and simple planning and control systems.
what are the disadvantages of product layout?
include that a breakdown at one workstation can cause the entire process to shut down; a change in product design or the introduction of new products may require major changes in the layout, limiting flexibility.
consists of a functional grouping of equipment or activities that do similar work.
process layout
what are the advantages of a process layout?
of process layouts include a lower investment in equipment, and the diversity of jobs inherent in a process layout can lead to increased worker satisfaction.
what are the disadvantages of a process layout?
include high movement and transportation costs, more complicated planning and control systems, longer total processing time, higher in-process inventory or waiting time, and higher worker-skill requirements.
uses small product layouts (called “cells”) for producing families of goods and services.
cellular layout
classifies parts into families so that cells can be designed for the families of goods or services.
group technology
consolidates the resources necessary to manufacture a good or deliver a service, such as people, materials, and equipment, in one physical location.
A fixed-position layout
Service organizations that provide highly standardized services tend to use
product layouts
is a type of product layout dedicated to combining the components of a good or service that has been created previously.
assembly line
is a technique to group tasks among workstations so that each workstation has—in the ideal case—the same amount of work. Imbalances lead to inequity in workloads and delays in processing
assembly line balancing
occurs when a work center completes a unit but cannot release it because the in-process storage at the next stage is full. The worker must remain idle until storage space becomes available.
flow blocking delay
occurs when one stage completes work and no units from the previous stage are awaiting processing.
lack of work delay
1. the set of tasks to be performed and the time required to perform each task,
2. the precedence relations among the tasks—that is, the sequence in which tasks must be performed, and
3. the desired output rate or forecast of demand for the assembly line.
three types of information to balance an assembly line:
is the interval between successive outputs coming off the assembly line.
cycle time
Standard goal of process layouts is to
minimize travel cost - travel of goods; travel of customers
Place departments that have a lot of traffic close together
regarding retail store layout what are two decisions?
Flow Pattern –
How customers move through the store

Allocation of (shelf or floor) space to particular products
Maximize customer exposure to products
Make them walk by (or at least see) everything
flow pattern
Goal is to maximize profit per square foot of display space (either shelf or floor)
space allocation
is concerned with improving productivity and safety by designing workplaces, equipment, instruments, computers, workstations, and so on that take into account the physical capabilities of people.