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135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a fossa?
a pit or depression in a bone. Frequently a site of bone articulation or muscle attachment.
What is a condyle?
an articular prominence of a bone.
What is a foramen?
any opening, orifice, or perforation, especially through bone. (hole)
What is a process?
a broad designation for any bone protrusion; usually the site of muscle or tendon attachment.
What is the mandible?
the lower jaw
What is the atlas?
1st vertebra; holds up skull
What is the axis?
2nd vertebra
What are the parts of the forelimb?
humerus, radius, ulna, and sternum
What are the bones of the hind limb?
femur, patella, tibia, fibula
What is the cervical?
neck vertebrae
What is the thoracic vertebra?
where the ribs attach
What is the lumbar?
ribs where the lower back is
What is the sacral?
vertebra where the hips fuse
What is the caudal?
vertebra where the tail is located
What is the skull divided into?
braincase and rostrum
What is the premaxilla?
support the incisors
What is the maxilla?
nose and upper jaw; supports canines, premolars, and molars
What is the foramen magnum?
where the spinal cord exists the skull
What is the zygomatic arch?
forms part of the orbit
What is the saggital crest?
increases area for jaw muscles to attach
What is the palatine?
hard secondary palate
What is the occiptal condyle?
articulates with the first vertebra
What is the tympanic bulla?
houses middle and inner ears
What does plantigrade mean towards foot posture? give some ex.
flat-footed (i.e. bears, raccoons, humans)
What does digitigrade mean towards foot posture?
walking on the digits (i.e.) cats, dogs)
What does unguligrade mean towards foot posture? Give some ex.
walking on the fingertips which are modified into hooves (deer, horse)
What does diphyodont mean?
they have two sets of teeth in their lives
What is hederodont dentition?
mammals have different kinds of teeth
What is a homodont? give an ex.
same size/type teeth, ex. dolphin
What is a hypsodont? give ex.
herbivore with cheek teeth present, ex. deer and horses
What is the selenodont?
a herbivore with teeth that have ridges that are formed by an elongation of a single cusp.
What is a lophodont?
herbivore with teeth that have fused cusps that form elongate ridges called lophs
What is a secodont, carnassial?
carnivore that has teeth with sharp edges for cutting
What are carnassial teeth? ex.
for shearing; in adults 4th upper premolar and 1st lower molar; only in the ORDER CARNIVORA; scissor action, (i.e. cats and dogs)
What are bunodont?ex.
omnivores that have low rounded cusps
i.e. humans and pigs
What is dorsal?
side nearest the back
What is cranial?
head region
What is ventral?
side nearest the belly
What is manus?
What is caudal?
tail region
What is pinnae?
What is nares?
chemical sensory organ in nose
What is pes?
What is vibrissae?
What is tapetum lucidum?
nocturnal vision i.e. eyeshine
What is adducts?
moves a limb toward the midline of the body
What is abducts?
moves a limb away from the midline of the body
What is masseter for?
for chewing
What is the temporalis for?
flexes head, lifts mandible
What is latissimus dorsi for?
pulls humerus backward
What is the pectoralis major and minor?
adducts forelimb
What is the gluteus maxiumus?
abducts thigh
What is the gracilis?
adducts thigh
What is the baculum?
os penis or penis bone
What is the biceps brachii?
flexes forelimb
What is the biceps femoris?
abducts thigh, flexes hind limb
What is the triceps?
extends forearm
What is the satorius?
extends hindlimb, adducts thigh
What is the cerebellum?
muscle coordination and balance
What is the cerebrum?
interprets sensory impulses and for the coordination of voluntary movements; memory and learning centers found in sections of the lobes; advanced
Are primates diurnal or nocturnal?
diurnal-usually move about in the day time.
Do primates have a well developed clavicle, a small clavicle or an absent clavicle?
well developed clavicle
Who are primates closely linked to?
Where do primates mostly live?
arboreal and some are terrestrial
How many species of primates have seen snow?
2 species
Do strepsirhini have a divided or undivided upper lip?
Do halorhini have a divided or undivided upper lip?
What is a rhinarium?
a wet, dog like nose
Who has a rhinarium?; strepsirhinis or halorhinis?
What is the bat order?
HOw long can bats live for?
10-25 years
What are the only mammals capable of true flight?
What are the two suborders of bats?
Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera
Is a clavicle present or not present in a bat?
present clavicle
What is it called when a bats knees are turned backward to support the tail membrane?
What is a calcar?
a cartlaginous rod present for supporting the tail membrane
What families are in Megachiroptera?
Describe the Megachiroptera family?
they are frugivores, fruit eaters, the first and second digits are free of membrane and are clawed, postorbital process present and large
What family is Pteropodidae?
flying foxes, old world fruit bats
Describe the Pteropodidae family?
mouse like ears, long snouts, good vision, large eyes, and olfaction, mostly nocturnal, do not hibernate, old world
What genus can ecolocate? and what family did they evolve from?
Rousettus, evolved from Microchiropterans
How are wings structured so that bats can fly?
4 fingers support surface covered by skin
Describe the Suborder Microchiroptera.
nocturnal, echolocation, eyes usually poorly developed, 2nd digit fully enclosed in wing membrane and not clawed, postorbital process absent, dilambdodont dentition, many incisors lost for echolocation
Describe the family Phyllostomidae and what suborder does it belong to, order?
noseleaf present on muzzle for directing sound for echolocation, tail and tail membrane varies, small tragus present, brightly colored fur or dull, neotropical; belongs to the Microchiroptera suborder and the Chiroptera order.-these are the New World Leaf-Nosed bats
What family is the vampire bat family?
Describe the Vespertilionidae family and what order and suborder it belongs to?
belongs to the Chiroptera Order and the Microchiroptera suborder. They are common bats, with long tail and wide tail membranes, most are insectivorous,suction discs on wrists and ankles, temperate regions of the US, may hibernae or migrate
Describe the Molossidae family and what order and suborder it belongs to.
It belongs to the Chiroptera order and the Microchiroptera suborder.They are free-tailed bats. The 1st and 5th digits of feet wth fring of stiff bristles, tragus small or absent, insectivorous, tail extends well beyond margin of small membrane
Describe the Rhinolophidae family. What is their order and suborder?
Chiroptera order and Microchiroptera suborder. stores sperm, Sometimes considered Hipposideridae for old world leaf nosed bats, (leaf nosed bats and horseshoe bats), they uropatagium
Big Brow Bat?
Eptesicus fuscus
Hoary Bat?
Lasiurus cinereus
Brazillian Free-tailed bat
Tadarida brasiliensis
Eastern pipistrelle
Pipestellus subflavus
Rafinesque's big-eared bat
Plectotus rafinesquii
Silver-haired bat
Lasionycteris noctivagans
Northern Long-eared bat
Myotis keenii
Small-footed bat
Myotis leibii
Southeastern myotis
Myotis autroriparus
Describe the strepserhini suborder.
simpler brain and facial structure, tooth comb (procumbent dentition) on bottom jaw, post orbital bar, rather than plate
What are the families that belong to the strepserhini suborder?
Lemuridae, Lorsidae, and Galgonidae
What are the two infraorders that belong to the Halorhini suborder?
Platyrrhini-new world monkeys-auditory bullae opened to the outside,
Catarrhini-old world monkeys, more evolved, ear canals that connect to the outside auditory bulla
What family is marmosets and tamarins?
What family is Great Apes?
What family is Humanoids?
What is the genus species of the Golden Lion tamarin?
Leontopithecus rosalia
What is the family, genus anPongidaed species of the Orangutan?
Pongidae, Ponga pygmaeus
What is the pollex and the hallux?
pollex is the thumb, hallux is the big toe
What do the female marmosets and tamarins usually have?
twin babies
What are the two butt spots on baboons?
ischial callosities
What are the families called that great apes live in?
What is the family, genus and species of the chimpanzee?
Pongidae, Pan troglodytes
What infraorder do the great apes belong to?
What is the auditory meatus and what family is it found in?
Hominidae, bony tube that leads from the auditory bulla to the outside
What is the difference btwn. tooth form with the Hominidae family and the Pongidae family?
the Hominidae family's tooth row forms a rounder arch, rather than square shape like the Pongidae family
What is the Lemur family, genus and species?
Lemuridae, Lemur catta
What suborder does the lemurs belong to?
Where are lemurs located? are they hervirous, omnivorous or insectivorous?
madagascar, all three
What is the family, genus and species of the squirrel monkey?
Cebidae, new world monkey, Saimiri sciureus
What do common squirrel monkeys eat?
small verterbrates and inverterbrates and fruit, plants
What is the family, genus and species of the mandril?
Cercopithecidae, Mandrillus sphinx
What is the family, genus and species of the De Brazza monkey?
Cercopithecidae, Cercopithecus neglectus
What is the largest and most diverse family found in Africa and Asia?
Cercopithecidae family
What infraorder do the Old world monkeys belong to?
Describe the old world monkey family.
Cercopithecidae family, non-prehensile tail, brightly color ischial callosities, can brachiate
What is brachiate?
hand over hand movement through trees
What is the order for sloths, armadillos and anteaters?
Why is the order for sloths, armadillos and anteaters called Xenarthra?
process on the spinal column; called xenarthrous-2 heads or points on each vertebra
Describe the Xenarthra order?
homodont teeth that always lack the incisors and enamel, primarily insectivorous, 2 or 3 digits..all new world
What is the family, genus and species of the anteaters?
Myrmecophagidae, Myrmecophag triadactyla
Where is the tongue attached on an anteater?
on the sternum
What is the family, genus and species of the 2-toed sloth?
Megalonychidae, Choloepus hoffmannii
What are the sloths related to?
What is the family, genus and species of armadillos?
Dasypodidae, Dasypus novemcinctus
What is the armor on an armadillo made of?
dermal bone and epidermal scales
How are armadillos produced?
by a single zygote of the same sex
What are Aardvarks? what order and family are they in?
they make up the niche that armadillos do not cover, weak enamel on teeth and 8 figure shaped teeth, Oryceteropodidae family in the order Tublidentata