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113 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the function of the pterygoideus muscles?
lateral movments of the lower jaw
Which three bones have involvement in closing the jaw?
massteral, temporal and the pterygoideus
What is a tribospehnic tooth?
the last type of tooth,gives crushing function during occlusion
What are the layers of a tooth?
dentine-inner
covered by enamel
What is the hardest tissue in mammals?
enamel
Between the incisors or the incisors and canines what is the space called there?
diastema
Where did mammals originate from and what are they called now?
Where did birds and lizards originate from? what are they called now?
originated from anapsid-called modified synapsid, ancestral therapsid
orginated from anapsid, called diapsid
When did mammals appear?
during the Mesozoic era, triassic period
What is the skull characteristic of the Synapsida?
single temporal opening low on the side of the skull surrounded by the postorbital, squamosal, and jugal bones
What is the definition of anapsid, synapsid, and diapsid? what type of animals are they?
anapsid-no temporal opening-lizards
synapsid-one single opening-mammals
diapsid-two single openings-birds, lizards
What is diphyodont?
two generations of teeth, juvenile and adult
What are therapsids?
groups of mammallike reptiles, directly ancestral to mammals.
What is the function of the hyomandibular bone?
associated with jaw and inner ear, way to transfer sound
How many occiptal condyles do reptiles and mammals have?
mammals-2
reptiles-1
What is therodont?
teeth are inserted in the dermis-highly rooted
What is the function of the pterygoid muscles?
side to side movement of the jaw
What is the hallmark of marsupials?
the epipubic bones
What makes the blood flow to the head?
carotid artery
How does a fish have blood pump?
ventral aorta (4 aortic arches) pumps deoxygenated blood and sends it into capillaries that are associated with gills
Where does the oxygenated blood go to the body at in mammals?
on the left side of the body
What is the portal system like in sharks? and why?
2 capillary beds with no heart between..b/c its safety to keep toxins out from bypassing through the heart
What are the three main blood flows to the heart in amphibians and reptiles?
jugulars, hepatics, postcava and veins
What is the difference betweent he amphibian/reptiles blood system compared to mammals?
they have a renal/portal system coming from the tail
In larval fishes which way does blood flow?
from the rear
Where do the jugulars dump into?
into the precava
Where do special nutrients and food occur in mammals?
in the appendix
What is coprophasy?
eating shit, all the good stuff that was formed by the intestinal secum-digestive material
What is the function of the rumen?
section of the stomach that is fast food consumption, fermentation, extremely acidic b/c formed by bacteria-protozoa
Describe the sections of the stomach.
reticulum-bee hive
omasum- layers
What part attaches to the stomach that leads to the small intestines?
the duodenum
What is the part of the kidney that only mammals have and what is its function?
the Loop of Henle-gives them the ability to concentrate urine
What does blood pressure do for mammals?
forces fluid salt out of capillary bed
What is the primary function of the kidney in the fish, marine fish and mammals?
freshwater fish-water pump
marine fish- get rid of little water, and get rid of a lot of salt
mammals-get rids of urea, salt and little water
What are the parts of the mammalian brain and their functions?
cerebral cortex-sensory input
cerebrum-motor output
there was a change in the cerebrum-much larger, new corpus callosum and gray matter
cerebellum-fine movement
What is the functions of the semi-circular canals in the ears?
3D movement
What is a huge difference in the ears of different species for the mammals?
the cochlea, an extension of hte lagena
What are birds?
modern reptiles
What is the earliest known synapsid reptiles?
Pelycosauria and Dimetrodon
How do you know if a reptile is on its way to becoming a synapsid?
make jaws longer than typical reptiles
After the Therapsids what come next? and what does it mean?
Cyodontia, dog jaw
For synapsid reptiles where were the teeth located?
on the hard palate
How did Pelycosaurs thermoregulate?
aborbed heat, and then cool on own, walked like salamanders
How can you tell a Pelycosaur from a Cynodont?
has a secondary hard palate, zygomatic arch doesn't exist at first
How do the Cynodonts walk?
like a dog
How do you tell you are seeing a reptile rather than a mammal?
they have cervical ribs
How did cynodontia advance?
advanced from herbivores to carnivores, started losing ribs in abdominal region
When did the zygomatic arch appear?
in the thoracis animals-cynodonts and therapsids
How many bones does the lower jaw for vertebrates and mammals have?
vertebrates-more than one
mammals-only dentary
What is the angular process?
where the coronoid process and masseter attach
What is thecodont?
rooted in sockets
What is the function of the dermis?
leather-connected tissue-stretch, strength, pull
What is the function of the epidermis?
keeps water-keeps from dying out
What are the layers of of the teeth?
pulp cavity-inside
dentine-2nd layer
cementum-holds teeth in
enamel-outer layer
What is lophodont? hyposodont? bunodont?
short tooth, high crowned tooth,
rounded cusps
What is tritubercular?
teeth with three major cusps
What are sebaceous glands?
oil glands
What do sweat glands give off? how does it work?
sodium chloride, urea, NH4, salt pump, water follows-osmosis
What are the functions of the arteries and the veins?
the veins take blood away from capillary bed, arteries to capillary bed
How does fur keep mammals warm?
the more hair the more air trapped
What is vasoconstrict?
stop blood flow when cold to keep heat
What are horns made of?
basically keratin
Where is the milk stored in a teat?
in a cistern
What is the rhinarium?
sensory tip of the snouth in mammals
Why are Metatherians called marsupials?
for the marsupium pouch in which young are carried
What are the three orders of Marcupials..there Infraclass and subclass name as well.?
Subclass- Theria
Infraclass- Metatheria
Order- Didelphimorphia-oppossums
Order-Paucituberculata-rat oppossums
Order-Dasyuromorphia
What did Metatheria originate from?
saber tooth tiger-Thylacosmilus
Argyrolagidae
Borhyaena
Which Metatherian order were carnivores and where did they come from?
Dasyuromorphia
came from Australia
What is diactyl and monodactyl?
the second and third digits of the forelimb are large and have hooflike claws,
monodactyl-only the forth toe is used for running
What is a character unique to only Peramelemorphs?
ectouneiform bone makes a broad contact with the proximal end of the fourth metatarsal and partially supports this digit.
What are all the families of the order Diprotodontia?
Phascolarctidae, Vombatidae, Phalangeridae
Which mammal has the largest secum?
koala bear
What is polyphodont?
many incisor teeth oriented vertically
What is diprotodont?
2 teeth oriented forward
What is the smallest living embryo's family's name?
Acrobatidae
What is the family's name that has the largest male sperm?
Acrobatidae
Which family has the smallest gliding animal?
Acrobatidae
What is coprophagy?
reingestion of feces
What is embryonic diapause?
the young remain in the pouch for over two months
What is bilophodont?
cheek teeth having an occlusal pattern with paired transverse ridges or lophs.
Which Order had the earliest fossils?
Insectivora
What does the Insectivora Order include?
hedgehogs, moles, tenrecs, golden moles, solenodons and shrews
Which orders in the Metatheria infraclass are more advanced athan the other marsupials?
Diprotodontia
Describe the skull of an insectivore.
inflected angular process, large mnadibular area and masseter area. smooth cerebral hemisphere, tympanic ring, no auditory bulla, jugal bone makes up zygomatic arch, sometimes not present maxiallary bone (also makes up zygomatic arch)
What do Brush tail possums resemble?
monkeys
Which possum is the world's smallest of all them in Australia? What family?
Burramyidae, pygmy possum
What is something unique about the Petauridae family?
the 4th digit is 1 1/2 times the length of the other digits..used for extracting stuff
What is tribosphenic?
3 cusps arranged dentition
What are the families in the order Insectivora?
Erinaceidae, Tenrecidae, Soricidae, Talpidae, Chrysochloridae
What are the two subfamilies of Erinaceidae?
Erinaceinae (hedgehogs) and the Hylomyinae (moon rats or gymnures)
What is heterothermic?
can regulate body temperature physiologically
What family is the golden moles family equivalent to?
the marsupial moles, Notorycidae
Which insectivora family has a electroreceptors on the nose?
Talpidae
Which insectivora family has poisonous salivary glands?
Solenodontidae
Which insectivora family is only found on Madagascar?
Tenrecidae
What is the largest and most important insectivore family?
Soricidae family
What is the Dehnel's phenomenon?
animals born in the fall stay small, shrews born in the spring grow larger
What is the weight of the smallest living mammal?
2 grams
What are all the families of the Insectivora order?
Solenodontidae, Tenrecidae, Chrysochloridae, Erinaceidae, Soricidae, Talpidae
What is the post-orbital process?
protects the eye and acts as a muscle attachment site
What is echolocation?
a means of perceiving the environment even in the darkness or varied lighting conditions
What is a tragus?
a fleshy projection of the anterior border of the ear opening
What is one unique thing about the Cynocephalidae family?
the canines are double rooted.
Which Old world bat family is the most important?
Rhinolophidae
What do vampires have in their saliva that helps with their diet?
anticoagulant, retards clotthing,
What are the primates included in the strepsirhini suborder?
Lemuridae, galagonidae,daubentoniidae, Loridae,Indridae, Cheirogaleidae
What primates are included in the haplorhini suborder?
Tarsiidae, Cercopithecidae, Cebidae, Callitrichidae, Hylobatidae, Hominidae
What is a hemochorial placenta?
capillaries of the chorion burrow into the uterine wall, making direct contact iwth the maternal blood
What is the epitheliochorial placenta?
where the capillaries are separated from maternal blood by the uterine lining
What family has the smallest new world primates?
Callitrichidae, marmosets
What are ischial collasities?
the red circles on the back of a monkeys butt
What is Platyrhini?
nose opens to front
What is Catyrhini?
new world, nose opens to side
What are Mangabeys?
tree dwelling monkeys, not a baboons, well developed thumbs