Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

159 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why are mammals endothermic?
because their body temperature is controlled largely by a combination of metabolic activity and physiological regulation of heat exhange with the environment
Which animals expend more energy to maintain their body temperatures? reptiles or mammals?
mammals up to 5 to 10 x's more
How much energy is used on thermoregulatEnter away message text here.ion?
What supports high body temperatures?
high oxygen-transport capabilities and high rates of enzymatic action
What is the primary advantage of endothermy?
the enhanced ability to sustain high levels of activity
Which mammal group has low body temperatures and what are those temperatures?
monotremes and xenarthrans
What is the thermal neutral zone?
a zone of ambient temperatures in which little energy is expended on temperature regulation.
What is a homeotherm?
an animals that can maintain a constant body temperature regardless of the ambient temperatures.
What is thermal conductance?
heat loss from the skin surface to the environment
What is thermal conductance determined by?
insulation -more insulation lower C, and body size-b/c of metabolic rate
What happens to the body after lower critical temperature is reached?
increase in oxidative metabolism to keep the body temperature constant
What is the upper critical temperature?
the point above which a constant body temperature can be maintained only by increasing the metabolic work being done above the resting level in order to dissipate heat.
What do animals do once they hit the upper critcal temperature?
they do evaporative cooling-involves considerable water loss through the skin (sweating) or nasal area-also called physiological regulation
What is it called when animals spend the day in cooler shelters and become active at night to avoid the upper critical temperatures?
behavioral reguatlion
What is thermal inertia?
larger animals are able to retain body heat better than smaller animals
What are four things mammals will do to cope with the cold?
they will evolve a larger body size for thermal intertia to reduce heat loss and requires less metabolic energy to keep the body temp. constant below the LCT.2. decrease their rate of heat loss through insulation or behavioral thermoregulation, 3. increase their rate of metabolic heat production 4. abandon their normal body temps. and allow it to decline to a level closer to ambient temps.
What is basal metabolic rate?
the minimum necessary for simply maintaining life in a resting organism in thermal neutrality.
What is mass-specific metabolic rate?
measured by oxygen consumption per gram of body weight per hour
How is weight specific metabolic rate relate to weight?
as the weight decreases the metabolic rate increases, they consume oxygen faster compared to an animal larger
What is thermogenesis?
the generation of heat
How do neonates keep warm?
by close proximity with their siblings and mothers
What is field metabolic rate?
the BMR, thermoregulation, locomotion, feeding, digestion, reproduction, growth and etc. experienced by a free-ranging animal during the course of 24 hours
Which animals have the highest metabolic rates in the animal kingdom?
What is the driving force for heat prodution in animals?
What is the driving force for evaporation?
water vapor
What are the main thermostats of the body?
hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.
What animal is the least expensive to keep alive?
the lizard
What is input energy equal to?
• Metabolism + Conductive Heat Transfer + Convective Heat Transfer + Radiation = Conductive + Convective + Radiative Input + Evaporative Heat Loss
What determines an animal's metabolic rate?
the mass of the animal
Even if the body temperature is the same as a human's, is a monotreme's metabolic rate the same?
no, it is still lower
Why is large size good for mammals?
it serves for insulation and effective metabolic fuel
What is nonshivering themogenesis?
production of heat by metabolizing fat, involves the oxidation of adipose tissue, no longer requires shivering to stay warm
Where is brown adipose tissue found?
around the neck and between the shoulders
How does the body's temp. stay constant?
the energy input has to equal the energy output
Are baby mammals cold blooded are warm blooded?
cold blooded until they reach a certain age.
What are two responses to cold water?
insulation or increase in metabolic rate
What is regional heterothermy?
the ability of some mammals to allow the temperatures of the skin or extremities to drop well below the core body temperature.
How do mammals practice regional heterothermy?
through vasoconstriction or countercurrent heat exchange system
What is countercurrent heat exchange?
when the arteriole blood (warm) exchanges heat from the veins that are returning blood to the heart (that is colder), therefore the arteriole blood is pre-cooled not being able to allow a lot of heat loss, and this minimizes the reduction in body temp.
What mammals uses countercurrent heat exchange a lot?
What is vasoconstriction?
the narrowing of a blood vessel
What is adaptive hypothermia?
torpor, reducing the body temperature and the metabolic rate 10 degrees within normothermia on one end, and torpor-falling to 1 degree of ambient, reduced oxygen consumption, prolonged series of apnea, reduced heart rate, ability to arouse by mobilizing endogenous heat production
What are the energy-saving physiological changes that occur during adaptive hypothermia or torpor?
reduced heart rate, progressive vasoconstriction, suppression of shivering, reduced breathing rate, lowered oxygen consumption-occur when entry into torpor, decline in body temp
What is torpor called during summer and what is it called during winter?
What do small mammals do to save energy?
store food or fat, reproduce during moderate temps or high food productivity, and allow body temp. to drop to near that of the environment
What are the three phases of torpor?
a rapid entry phase, a prolonged period of torpor, and a relatively rapid arousal period.
What causes the entry into torpor?
spontaneous..or lack of food
What is a circadian phenomenon?
animals that are torpid by day and active and normothermic by night
What are the body temps for deep torpor and shallow torpor?
deep torpor: between 1 degree to 15 degrees celsius
shallow torpor- roughly above 15 degrees
What is the rate of entry into torpor proportional to?
thermal conductance and body mass
Which animals enter torpor more quickly? larger or smaller?
smallers animals
What is the body temperature called when it enters torpor?
critical body temperature
What are the two ways to enter arousal from hibernation?
shivering or from the metabolism of adipose tissue
What is the metabolic rate of a chiropteran equal to when it is moving and when it is not moving?
when it is moving it is equal to a bird's metabolic rate, when it isn't moving it is equal to a mammal's metabolic rate
What orders belong to the metatheria subclass?
Didelphimorphia, Paucituberculata, Dasyuromorphia, Peramelemorphia, Notoryctemorphia, Diprotodontia
What order belongs to the Prototheria subclass?
What orders belong to the eutheria subclass?
Xenarthra, Insectivora, Scandentia, Dermoptera, Chiroptera, Primates, Carnivora, Cetacea, Sirenia, Proboscidea, Perissodactyla, Hydrcoidea, Tublidentata, Artiodactyla, Pholidota, Rodentia, Lagomorphia, Macroscelidea
Describe the skull of the carnivores.
carnassial dentention, last upper premolar and first lower molar has shearing action, small angular and large coronoid process, have a sagittal crest, well-developed turbinate bones, strongly C-shaped mandibular fossa (jaw can only go up and down)
Describe the Cetacea order.
increased length of fingers (flukes), tail fluke used for propulsion, nose is on top of head (blowhole), no pelvic girdle, collpase o lungs when diving to keep nitrogen out of blood
What is the difference between the Caniformes and the Feliformes suborders?
the feliformes suborder has two bones in the auditory bulla while the caniformes has one bone in the auditory bulla
Describe the order monotremata.
has a cloaca like a bird (one opening for urinary and fecal deposits), zygomatic arch (no jugal bone), no tympanic bone, alisphenoid bone makes up auditory bulla, certain reptillian characteristics, no corpus callosum--echidnas, spiny anteaters, duck-billed platypus
Describe the Peramelemorphia order.
bandicoots billibys,chorio-allantoic sac instead of chorio-vitelline sac like other marsupials, most are insectivores, digits 2 and 3 syndactylus, polyprotodont, digitigrade foot posture, digit 4 is a hoof
Describe the order insectivora.
west indian shrews, tenrecs,golden moles, hedgehogs, shrews, moles-first fossil true placental mammals; smooth cerebral hemispheres, tympanic ring
Describe the Rodentia order.
most impt. family is Muridae, large incisors, no peg incisors, 1/1, 0/0, 3/3, simplified dentition; strong rooting of incisors; cheek teeth are ever-growing in some; coronoid process is reduced; most have large zygomoatic arch
For whole body metabolic rate is it the bigger the body the bigger or smaller the metabolic rate?
the bigger the metabolic rate..very expensive to keep small animals alive
For weight metabolic rate is it bigger the body the bigger or smaller the metabolic rate?
smaller metabolic rate
What is panting used for?
heat dissipation, used for temperature regulation, evaporative cooling of the mouth , tongue and nasal mucosa
How do dogs dissipate heat?
through panting and through nasal mucosa
What are the advantages of panting?
minimal salt loss, adequate ventillation
What is cutaneous evaporation?
water loss across the skin's surface
what is the equation for metabolic rate?
What equation is used to calculated basal metabolic rate?
When animals run are they anaerobic or aerobic?
When does O2 concentration go up in animals?
when the temperature is below 10 degrees celsius
What does the sodium/potassium pump do?
leaks sodium in, pumps sodium out
Which mammals are quick to increase metabolic rate, artic or temperature animals or tropical animals?
tropical animals
How much fat is needed to get one inch of fur?
7 to 9 inches
What does VO2 equal?
metabolic rate
What is an allometric relationship?
the relationship between body size and metabolic rate
What mammals shows the greatest increase in metabolic rate?
Rate the cheapest way of movements..from cheapest to most expensive; running, flying and swimming
flying, running-most expensivew
What is the equation for evaporation?
k(water vapor pressure from the lung - water vapor pressure from the air breathed in)
What is the percentage of humidity in the lung?
100% humidity
Is it the hotter the air or the colder the air that the more evaporation your lungs will see?
the colder the air
How much water must be lost for a mammal to go into a coma?
20% water loss
What is a nasal vein?
a network of capillaries
What are the benefits of nasal counter current exchange?
reduces the total water loss, and helps to recover heat
What are the months for hibernation?
september to march
What is spontaneous hibernation?
go into hibernation for two weeks, then come out..then go back in
What is the body temperature of hibernators and of daily torpor?
close to 0 degrees for hibernators, 20 degrees for daily torpors
What mammals has the lowest body temp. while hibernating and what is it?
-4 degrees the Arctic ground squirrel
What is carnivorans lethargy?
32-33 degrees
What are true hibernators?
enter hibernation by controlled thermostat
Which mammals enter hibernation?
bats, marsupials,
What mammals enter torpor?
insectivores, tenrecs, peromyscus
What keeps you warm when you are born?
bat (brown adipose tissue)
What is the difference between WAT and BAT?
the BAT is multilocular (bunch of blood vessels) and the WAT is unilocular, the BAT has tons of mitochondria
What are the layers of the kidney?q
the cortex is the outer layer, the medulla is the middle layer and the renal papillae is the center
What about the kidneys makes mammals unique?
they have the loop of henle
What makes it so that humans have U/P ratios up to 30?
the loop of henle
What is the difference between desert animals and aquatic animals when it comes to their medullas in their kidneys?
the medullas in the desert animals are large, small in the aqautic animals
Which animal has the most concentrated kidney in the world?
the hoppingmouse
What are the end products if you are a meat eater?
a lot of nitrogeneous end products
What are the end products when sugar is eaten?
Co2 and water
When protein and oxygen are taken in what are the end products?
CO2+ H20 + NH3
How is urea produced?
with ATP and 2NH3
Why is urea produced?
because then little water is dumped out
Which one requires less water, uric acid or urea? what is the difference?
uric acid, however it requires more energy to produce
Which animals produce uric acid?
birds and reptiles
If an animal is tight skinned then what happens with the water loss?
it has a huge amount of water loss through the skin rather than respiratory water loss
What is the kidney's main purpose?
to filter blood
What is the elongated tube that goes deep into the papillae?
the bowman's capsule-collective ducts that connect to the loop of henle
What is the driving force for the kidney?
blood, filtration by pressure
Why is the kidney known as non-selective ultrafiltration?
it is only selective about size, filtration by pressure
What is the concentration of blood?
350 milliosmoles
What concentrates the urine?
the loop of henle
Where does water flow out of?
the collecting duct
How do animals control how much water comes out?
by an anti-diuretic hormone, opening and closing pores
What is the name of the milk sac in mammals?
choriovitellinae, its a relatively inefficient finger projection
What do chorioallentoic produce?
microvilli=75 km in distance
What is the epithelium of the uterus called? how do blood vessels get through it?
the epithelialchorial, through the endotherlium, then connective tissue, then the epithelium, then the chorial lining, then connective tissue
Describe how a blood vessel gets through the symdesmichorial lining?
gets rid of the epithelial linin gand the connective tissue
The fetus itself has to go through what lining?
the chorial lining
in the endothelialchorial what touches what?
the endothelium touches the chorial lining, found in humans, rodents and rats
Describe the hemoendothelium.
get rid of the chorial lining and the blood vessel of the fetus is in a pool of blood, found in rodents and rabbits
Describe the monotremata family.
Primitive egg-laying mammals. Skull and lower jaw
modified to form a bill-like structure. Possess hair,
mammary glands without nipples, lack teeth.platypus and echidnas
Describe the masupialia infraclass metatheria.
Pouched mammals. Young born in a premature
condition and carried by the female in a pouch.
Describe the chiroptera order.
bats, True flying mammals of small to medium size. Bone of
palms and fingers elongated and covered with a
membrane that extends to the ankle.
Describe the primate order.
Small to large mammals with highly developed cerebral
hemispheres. Limbs with ball and socket articulation,
allowing for great motility. Opposable thumbs or great
toes. Nails replace claws on some or all of digits.
Describe the Edentata order (tree sloths, armadillos, new world anteaters).
Incisors and canines always lacking; all teeth lacking in
some species. Front claws greatly enlarged for clawing
or hanging from trees.
Describe the rodentia order. Rodentia
(squirrels, gophers, rats, mice, beavers,
agoutis, hutias, pacaranas, porcupine,
Very small to medium-sized mammals with two upper
and two lower chisel-like incisors adapted for gnawing
Describe the Carnivora
(dogs, cats, bears, skunks, raccoons, hyenas).
Small to very large-sized predators. Canines large.
Carnassial teeth modified for cutting and shearing meat.
Eyes directed forward.
describe the pinnipedia order.
Aquatic predators that breed on land. Limbs modified
into flippers.
Describe the Proboscidia
Very large, very long trunk. Massive head. Prominent
tusks. Legs columnar. African and Asian species.
DEscribe the perissodactyla order. (horses, rhinos, tapirs)
Large to very large. Odd-numbered toes, hoofed
mammals. Main axis of foot through third digit.
Describe the artiodactyla order.
Small to very large. Even-numbered toes, hoofed
mammals. Main axis of foot between toes three and
What order has opossums?
What order has rat opossums?
What order has thylacines, numbats, dasyures, dunnarts, devils?
What order has bandicoots?
What order has marsupial moles?
What order has koalas, wombats, rat kangaroos, kangaroos, wallabies?
What order has tree sloths, anteaters, armadillos?
What order has tenrecs, hedgehogs, shrews and moles?
What order has tree shrews?
What order has flying lemurs?
What order has bats?
What order has monkeys, lemurs tarsiers?
What order has cats, hyenas, wolves?
What order has whales, dolphins, porpoises?
What order has manatees?
What order has elephants?
What order has horses, tapirs and rhinos?
What order has hyraxes?
What order has peccaries, hippopotamis, camels, deer, pronghorns?
What order has scaly anteaters and pangolins?
What orders has rats, mice and squirrels?
What order has rabbits and pikas?
What order has elephant shrews?