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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the function of transducin in the phototransduction cascade?
activate phosphodiesterase and decrease concentration of cGMP
Bernstein proposed one of the first hypotheses for estimating the resting membrane potential. His hypothesis was based on...
...the Nernst equilibrium equation for potassium
During the AP, Na+ channels...
...are rapidly activated and then undergo voltage-dependent inactivation
The primary function of the otolith organ is to detect changes in...
...linear acceleration
Name four properties of the NMDA receptor
1. activation required for the induction of LTP, LDP
2. ion channel is selectively permeable to Ca++
3. can be activated by NMDA
4. activation requires glutamate + membrane depolarization
For neurons, the concentration of ions in the cytoplasm (IN) vs. extracellular space (OUT) is..
...Na+ high OUT, low IN
AND organic ions high IN
The propagation velocity of APs correlate to...
1. slower in unmyelinated axons vs. myelinated axons
2. directly proporational to space constant
3. inversely proporational to time constant
4. faster in axons with lg. D
The propagation velocity of APs does NOT correlate with...
...faster propagation in axons w/lower threshold for initiating AP
Depolarization threshold for initiating APs is...
What produces the EPP at the NMJ?
The release of enough ACh to depolarize the postsynaptic muscle fiber by ~50mV
Difference btwn EPSP, IPSP
EPSP - produced by excitatory NTs

IPSP - inhibatory NTS
GHK equation better vs. Nernst for predicting Vm bc...
...includes terms for Na+:K+ permeabilities AND [Na+] in, out of cell
Name four things that affect synaptic transmission at the NMJ
1. curare (muscle relactant)
2. absence/Ca++ at synaptic cleft (exocytosis)
3. AChE inhibitor(neostigme)
4. decrease in Pr
Spatial and temporal summation of EPSPs in CNS neurons are important b/c..
...a single EPSP is too small to cause depolarization, threshold for initiating AP
Axons of second order neurons in the superior and medial vestibular nucleii provide critical sensory information to other cranial nerve nucleii for the function of..
...controlling extrinsic eye muscles
The function of extrinsic eye muscles...
change the pos/eye
The function of instrinsic eye muscles...
change shape/lens and size/pupil
Who was H.M.?
Man who lost ability to make new long-term memories after brain surgery to treat epilepsy
Name three characteristics of sound localization in the horizontal plane.
1. requires neurons in the cochlear nerve and bilateral auditory pathways in the brainstem
2. inhibitory and excitory inputs convulge at SOC
3. interaural delays are <50 microseconds
The ossicles of the middle ear...
1. transmit vibrations from ear drum to oval window
2. produce 20x amplification/sound
3. sound conduction reduced when tensor tympani, stapedius muscles contract
Four observations made in response to recording APs from an optic nerve in response to light stimulation of increasing intensity.
1. AP duration = 1-2 msec
2. AP propagation is all or none
3. increase in stimulus intensity = increase in firing frequency
The auditory apparatus can respond to sounds of different frequencies b/c...
...the basilar membrane in narrow and stiff at the oval window and wide and floppy at the apex
Activation of what voltage-regulated channel promotes exocytosis?
N-type Ca++ channel
Name four things involved in the mechanotransduction of hair cells
1. tip links made of cadhedrin
2. Ca++ influx through MT channels
3. NT released at synapse btwn hair cells, afferent nerves
4. mechanical bending of hair cell stereocilia
Direct pupillary reflex observed in the right eye is a result of...
...a lesion at the Edinger Westphal nucleus on ipsilateral side of brain
An consensual pupillary reflex in the right eye is a result of...
...a lesing at the Edinger Westphal nucleus on the contralateral side of brain
Sound frequency range that elicits auditory system response in humans
20 - 20000 Hz
Name four risk factors for acquiring AD
1. increased age (85+)
2. mutations/presenilin genes
3. mutations/APP genes
4. Down's syndrome
AB proteins phosphorylate Tau, which leads to the breakdown of ____, eventually resulting in _____ AND _____
neuronal cell death
Alzheimer's Disease
Functional difference btwn auditory, vestibular hair cells
auditory hair cells respond to sensory stimulii of much higher freq. vs. vestibular hair cells
Release probability (Pr) refers to..
..probability that NT is released when AP reaches presynaptic terminal
In the absence of light, rod photoreceptors are...
...depolarized and releasing glutamate
Name four characteristics of the NMJ.
1. basal lamina anchors AChE in the synaptic cleft
2. postsynaptic junctional folds contain high densities of ACh-R at their crest
3. Pr = 1
4. motor axon branches, creating separate active zones
Names of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order neurons in the visual pathway
1 -- photoreceptors
2 -- bipolar or interneurons
3 -- ganglion cells
The primary function of the cupula is to...
...enclose stereocilium, kinocilium and aid in their deflection by forces exerted by endolymph
When hair cell stereocilia are deflected to pull on the structural linkage btwn adjacent stereocilia...
...Ca++ permeable MT channels open, hair cells depolarize
A lesion of the visual pathways at the optic chiasm which only destoys the crossing axons of ganglion cells in the nasal retina of both eyes produces...
...loss of the temporal half of the visual field in both eyes
NMDA-R1 knockout mice exhibit _____ when analyzed by the transfer test in the Morris Water Maze
similar search times in all quadrants
Four functions of extrinsic eye muscles
1. change pos/eye to project visual images on the fovea
2. coordinate upward gaze
3. coordinate downward gaze
4. coordinate eye movement for seeing moving objects
Requirements to perceive color...
1. activation/opsin by light of different wavelengths
2. light-dependent conversion of 11-cis to 11-trans retinal
3. activation/transducin
4. S, M, and L cones
Abnormal functioning of the oculomotor system can result in...
1. blurred vision
2. loss of depth perception
3. double vision
4. decreased control of pupil dilation
According to Hebb's postulate, an event to be remembered would...
...create reverberating synaptic activity that would produce long lasting increases in the number of synapses
The signaling pathway that underlies slow EPSP involves...
1. activation of G-protein
2. activation of adenylate cyclase and production of cAMP
3. activation of PKA and phosphorylation of K+ channels
4. K+ channel closing and neuronal depolarization
Name four mechanisms that contribute to synaptic plasticity
1. increase in postsynaptic Ca++ concentration
2. increase in # of post-synaptic AMPA type glutamate receptors
3. increase in Pr
4. increase in # of multiple spine synaptic boutonsNa
Name four properties of light sensitive ganglion cells in mammalian retina
1. est. circadian rhythm in animals w/o photoreceptors
2. melanopsin = light sensitive photopigment
3. axons project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus
4. respond directly to light stimuli by firing AP
What happens to Na+ conductance when a neuron's Vm is maximally depolarized?
It begins to decrease b/c Na+ channels are beginning to inactivate.
The vestibular system can detect extremely small changes in angular acceleration b/c the CNS continuously computes differences btwn increases and decreases in AP firing btwn complementary prs of semicircular canals.
Name four characteristics about cochlear hair cells
1. when severely damaged, will NOT regenerate
2. have Vm = -150mV
3. more die as age increases
4. glutamate receptor antagonists protect hair cells from being damaged by very loud sounds
Name four things that occur during the knee-jerk reflex
1. inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord release glycine
2. flexor motor neurons in spinal cord become hyperpolarized, fire fewer APs
3. extensor motor neurons become depolarized, fire more APs
4. extensor (quad) contracts
Our ability to perceive complex sounds is b/c the basilar membrane...
...simultaneously vibrates at mult. loc. along its length
Name three characteristics about the Amyloid-beta protein
1. it is produced by the proteolytic processing of APP
2. it is degraded by neprilysin
3. it forms polymers and extracellular plaques that are toxic to neurons
Name four properties of the Na+ channels involved in APs
1. contain four domains that have similar structures which fold together to form the channel
2. ea./its four domains contains a region that helps form the channel's ion pore
3. ea. domain contains a voltage sensing region that responds to changes in Vm
4. contain inactivation gate that blocks Na+ conductance after the channel has been activated
The striated appearance of skeletal muscle is due to..
..sarcomeres of myofibrils lined up in register
When Ca++ activates cross-bridge cycling, it does so by binding to..
What happens to ADP during the myosin power stroke - when the head actually pulls the thin filament, causing it to slide
ADP stays bound to myosin during the power stroke
Name in order the events in excitation-contraction coupling
1. motor endplate depolarizes
2. AP travels over muscle cell membrane
3. AP travels down t-tubules
4. Ca++ released through channels from longitudinal SR
5. Ca++ pumped into lateral sacs (terminal cisternae)
All of the following are true of Andrew Huxley's experiment except:
1. cells coud freely shorten, lengthen
2. muscle cells were tested individually
3. cells were artificially stimulated to contract
4. data based on many discrete measurements at diff. lengths
choice number 1
Fused tetanus, temporal summation, and incomplete tetanus involve the effects of what over time?
multiple stimulii
During exercise, what is the next source of energy after ATP is exhausted?
creating phosphate conversion
The process of different groups of motor cells twitching at different times just often enough to keep muscles contracted continuously is called...
...asynchromous motor unit summation
What is the major difference btwn single unit smooth muscle and multi-unit smooth muscle?
APs can spread from cell to cell in single-unit, not multi-unit
steps of the phototransduction cascade
1. light stimulates the conversion of 11-cis retinal to 11-trans retinal (rhodopsin)
2. 11-trans activates transducin
3. transducin activates phosphodiesterase
4. phophodiesterase closes Na+ channels
5. less NT released
Name three factors that increase stroke volume
1. increase LVEDV
2. increase contractility (ionotropic effect)
3. decreased BP in aorta
MAPB = ?
DBP + 1/3 pulse pressure
PAH is only useful for measuring RPF at low blood concentration b/c... high blood concentration PAH is not completely secreted
In the nephron, water, sm. molc., and ions are initially _____, then returned to the blood by ______.
secreted, reabsorbed
Gross Filtration Rate = ??
UF x [inulin]bl/[inulin]pl

site of ultrafiltration in kidney
Name four things that occur in the PCT.
1. Na+ actively pumped out
2. great reduction in fluid volume
3. glucose actively reabsorbed
4. water reabsorbed by osmosis
water permeability is adjusted by ADH in the...
collecting duct
Although the _____ is permeable to water, not ions, in the Loop of Henle, the _____ actively pumps ions out.
descending limb, thick ascending limb
The unique property of the ion pump in the Loop of Henle
contransporting 1 Na+, K+ and two Cl-
Name four characteristics of the DCT
1. pH/tubular fluid adjusted
2. Na+ reabsorbed
3. K+ secreted
4. partly regulated by aldosterone
Main metabolic byproduct of urine
What is true of the amount of ADH present in the nephrons hen a low volume of highly concentrated urine is being produced?
ADH is present in high amounts, increasing the permeability of the collecting duct
Name three functions of saliva.
1. begins breakdown/carbs
2. sticks food together to form bolus
3. lubricates inner surface/oral cavity
Stomach acid is neutralized by...
pancreatic bicarbonate
List the sequence by which fat absorption occurs
1. bile salts emulsify fat
2. lipase splits triglycerides
3. fatty acids from micelles
4. fatty acids diffuse through membrane/sm. intestine
In the sm. intestine, carbs are absorbed as...
...monosaccharides by facilitated diffusion, active transport
physiological significance of the hepatic portal sys.
absorbed food molc. go directly from intestine to liver for processing, distribution
Name three enzymes involved in protein breakdown.
1. pepsin
2. trypsin
3. chymotrypsin
The mechanism for water reabsorption in the lg. intestine is almost identicle to...
..water reabsorption in teh PCT
secreted by small intestine, stimulates gall bladder to pump bile into the duodenum
secreted by stomach, increases acid production
secreted by duodenum, gastrin antagonist
secreted by duodenum, migrating motility complex
Insulin is what class of hormone?
Name three responses elicited by peptide hormones
1. ionotropic
2. activate G protein
3. (in)activate receptor enzyme
Hormones released by posterior pituitary
oxytocin, ADH
The posterior pituitary is not a true endocrine gland, but a...
...neurosecretory organ
...causes glucose sparring
An increase in secretion of T3,4 hormones has what effect of BMR?
increases BMR
What feature allows the hypothalamus to use extrememly minute amts./hormones
portal sys. connecting hypothalamus to its target
Name five hormones secreted by anterior pituitary
Name hormones from the hypothalamus that elicit the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary
The Adrenal medulla functions as a part of what division of the ANS?
sympathetic nervous system
Cortisol mimics the effects of what hormone?
Glucagon -- reason there is no "missing glucagon disease"
List in order the steps of the renin-angiotensin sys?
1. Na+ low, so kidney secretes renin
2. renin activates angiotension
3. angiotension I converted to "" "" II by CAP enzymes
4. adrenal cortex secretes aldosterone
5. kidney increases Na+ reabsorption
The absence of PTH decreases ___ concentration, causing bones to increase ____ uptake and ____
Ca++, Ca++, mineralization
What division of the ANS controls male erection, ejaculation?
Parasympathetic, Sympathetic
The luteal phase of the ovarian cycle corresponds to the ____ phase in the menstrual cycle
secretory phase
The follicular phase of the ovarian cycle correspons to the _____ phases of the menstrual cycle
menses, proliferative
hCG secreted by what signals to the mother that pregnancy has begun?
Functions of oxytocin
1. expell baby, placenta
2. contractions
3. milk let-down reflex
4. shrinks uterus
The developemental switch that causes sexual differentation following the indifferent stage...
beginning of testosterone secreted by testes
Wolffian ducts develope into..
..ductus deferens
Mularian ducts devolope into..
..uterine tubes, uterus