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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Male Genital Ducts:
Epididymis
Vas deferens
Ejaculatory duct
Urethra
Male Accessory glands:
Seminal vesicle
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral glands
Testicular Descent
Develops in abdomen & then migrates down, carrying with it a double layered peritoneal fold – the processus vaginalis

This gives rise to the tunica vaginalis which is double layered with serous fluid between them.
Tunica Vaginalis
of testis
Parietal layer adheres to scrotum.
Visceral layer adheres to capsule
Tunica Albuginea
Fibrous capsule of the testis.

Thickened on posterior side – Mediastinum testis

Lined by the vascular Connective Tissue (Tunica Vasculosa)
Gonadal sex is determined by...
the presence of the SRY gene on the short arm of the Y chromosome
Structure of Testis
Septa divide testis into lobules.

Lobules contain 1-4 seminiferous tubules that converge to make the tubular recti that go on to form the rete testis.

Rete testis joins the epididymis via efferent ductules.
Seminiferous Tubules
the tunica propria, a fibrous tunic containing collagen fibrils & myoid cells that moves sperm and fluid through tubules
Seminiferous Tubules Lined by...
a stratified germinal epithelium that contains spermatogenic & Sertoli cells
Leydig cell location
in between the seminiferous tubes, not in the ST
Seminiferous Tubule General Function
where sperm develop
Sertoli Cell Function
1.Support, protect & nourish developing sperm cells

2.Phagocytosis of residual cytoplasm of spermatids

3.Secrete fluid to transport sperm and secrete androgen binding protein (under the influence of FSH) to concentrate testosterone in the seminiferous tubules in order for spermatogenesis to occur
Sertoli Cells Regulate...
the function of Leydig cells to promote mesonephric (Wolffian) duct development
Sertoli Cells Inhibit...
FSH production and release from the pituitary (via production of the polypeptide inhibin)
Sertoli Cells Promote...
regression of Mullerian ducts in male fetus (via production of anti-Mullerian hormone-MIS)
Sertoli Cells Histology
Extend from basement membrane to the lumen of the seminiferous tubules.

Pale oval nucleus (stained evenly) with a large nucleolus.

Zonulae occludens join adjacent Sertoli cells & form a blood testis barrier.
Blood Testis Barrier
Sertoli cells have tight junctions that separate the tubules into 2 compartments:
1. Basal Compartment
2. Adluminal Compartment
Basal compartment
contains the diploid spermatogonia
Adluminal compartment
contains the haploid spermatocytes & spermatids.

Prevents immune attack against sperm cells.
Leydig cells
Present in interstitial tissue

large polygonal and have an eosinophilic cytoplasm with lipid droplets.

have lipofusin pigment and crystals of Reinke

Produce testosterone in response to LH released from the anterior pituitary
If too much testosterone is produced in Leydig Cells then...
there is negative feedback inhibiting the production of more LH
Temperature Control in Testis
Lower temperature in testis is necessary for spermatogenesis (35˚ C vs. 37˚ C)
Temperature in testis controlled by...
Contraction of Cremaster muscles of spermatic cords if the external environment becomes too chilly

Evaporation of sweat from scrotum

Counter-current blood flow by the action of the pampiniform plexus surrounding the testicular artery
Coordination of Spermatogenesis
All sperm cells originate from cells at the base of the seminiferous tubules and are called spermatogonia at this point.

They remain attached by a series of cytoplasmic bridges until they become mature spermatids

Entire process takes 2 months
The sertoli cell to cell junctions establish...
Two compartments:
1. Early sperm cells near basal lamina (basal compartment)

2. More mature sperm cells near lumen (luminal compartment)
Spermiogenesis
Process of formation of mature sperms from spermatids.

Takes place close to the lumen of the seminiferous tubule.
Subcelluar events seen in spermiogenesis:
The Golgi apparatus forms an acrosomal vesicle that contains an acrosomal granule that attaches to the nuclear membrane of the spermatid.

Acrosome is formed by spreading of the acrosomal vesicle over the anterior half of the nucleus.
Maturation phase of Spermiogenesis
The spermatids usually attach by cytoplasmic bridges for communication.
Spermatozoa (sperm) Head
Nucleus made up of condensed chromatin & areas of dispersed chromatin (vacuoles)

Acrosomal cap contains hyaluronidase, neuraminidase, acid phosphatase & other proteases that degrade the corona radiata & zona pellucida of a female ovum (egg)
Spermatozoa (sperm) Mid Piece
A short region that connects head to tail

Spirally arranged mitochondria surround fibrils and axoneme

Region contains the most cytoplasm

Thickening of plasma membrane keeps mitochondria in middle piece
Spermatozoa (sperm) Tail
End piece
Axoneme surrounded by 9 parallel coarse fibrils

9 +2 arrangement

End Piece contains only an axoneme.
Tubuli Recti
Connects seminiferous tubules to rete testis.

Lined by simple cuboidal epithelium.
Rete Testis
Anastomotic tubules in the mediastinum testis.

Lined by simple cuboidal epithelium.

No smooth muscle
Efferent Ductules
Connects rete testis to epididymis.

Lined by simple ciliated columnar epithelium alternating with non ciliated cells.

Smooth muscle around the ductules also help in the movement.

Cross section of the tubes has a scalloped appearance to it.

Ciliated epithelium assist the sperm to move through tubular system
Steroids and Testes
Affect leydig cell production of testosterone therefore decreasing the endogenous production of testosterone
Epididymis
Long convoluted tube 4-6 meters long on posterior aspect of the testis.

Head, body & tail.

Site of sperm maturation; Sperm become motile here

Consists of the efferent ductules and the duct of the epididymis

Have smooth muscle
Epididymis Lined by...
pseudostratified epithelium with prinicpal and basal cells

The epithelial cells have long modified microvilli called sterocilia
Sperm mature in the epididymis because...
the head of sperm is modified by surface associated decapacitation factor (made by the epididymis) which is taken off when the sperm is to fertilize the ovum
Epididymis smooth muscle
layer around the tube that assists in peristalsis.
Vas (Ductus) Deferens
Narrow lumen, pseudostratified epithelium with reduced stereocilia.

Lumen is star shaped!

Has a thick smooth muscle wall 3 layers– inner & outer longitudinal with circular muscle in between them.

Distal portion is dilated to form the ampulla that joins the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct.
Assecessory Organs of Male Reproductive Tract
Seminal Vesicles
Prostate Gland
Cowper’s (Bulbourethral ) glands
Functions of Seminal Vesicle
Under the control of testosterone.

Produce a viscous alkaline fluid consisting of fructose (most abundant and is the principal metabolic substance for sperm), and citrate, Vitamin C, fibrinogen & prostaglandins.
Seminal Vesicle
Extensively coiled structure lined by pseudostratified or simple columnar epithelium.

Epithelial cells are rich in secretory granules, lipofuscin granules & lipid droplets.

Lamina propria consists of fibroelastic tissue.

Has inner circular & outer longitudinal smooth muscle layers that contract during ejaculation.
Prostate Gland Organ
Capsule: Fibroelastic capsule rich in smooth muscle is continuous with septa that divide the gland.

Stroma: made of smooth muscle
Small glands of the Prostate Gland Organ
Collection of 30-50 branched compound tubuloalveolar glands.

Epithelial lining is pseudostratified columnar.

Ducts of the empty into prostatic urethra
Prostate Zones
Transitional Zone
Central Zone
Peripheral Zone
Anterior Fibromuscular stroma
Prostate Transitional zone
surrounds the prostatic urethra.

5% of glandular tissue.

Major site of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Prostate Central zone
surrounds ejaculatory duct.

25% of glandular tissue
Prostate Peripheral zone
70% of glandular tissue

major site of prostate cancer.
Prostate Anterior Fibromuscular stroma
contains stroma, NO glands.
Small Gland locations of the Prostate Gland Organ
3 concentric layers of glands surround the urethra:
1. Mucosal glands (closest to urethra)– drain directly into urethra from the central zone.

2. Submucosal glands(middle layer)– empty into urethra via short ducts from the transitional zone.

3. Main prostatic glands (outer layer glands) – open via long ducts from the peripheral zone
Glandular Epithelium of Prostate
Pseudostratified columnar.

Cells contain numerous RER, Golgi complex, lysosomes & secretory granules.
Prostatic Concretions
With increasing age, lamellated glycoprotein masses called corpora amylacea (CA) form in the glandular lumen.

These concretions may be calcified.

Characteristic for prostate!
Prostatic Gland secretions
1.Produces a thin milky fluid that contains citric acid, acid phosphatase, amylase & lipids and fibrolysin (which liquefies the semen)

2. secretes a serine protease –or PSA (can be detected in the blood serum-PSA blood test)

3.The synthesis & release of the secretion is regulated by dihydrotestosterone.
Prostate Cancer
1.Commonly originates in the peripheral zone.

2.Occurs in 1/3rd men over 75 & is the 2nd most common cancer in men.

3.Associated with an elevated Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) in blood.

4.PSA & a Per Rectal exam are screening methods that are recommended.
Bulbourethral (Cowper’s) Glands
Paired glands in the membranous urethra.

Lined by mucus secreting cuboidal to columnar epithelium.

Analogous to Bartholin’s gland in the female
Bulbourethral (Cowper’s) Glands
a fibroelastic capsule containing smooth & skeletal muscle.
Bulbourethral (Cowper’s) Glands Secrete...
pre ejaculate fluid that contains glacatose and galactosamine
Penis
Consists of 3 erectile tissues:
1. Paired corpora cavernosa & single corpus spongiosum which surrounds the urethra & becomes the glans penis.

2. Tunica albuginea surrounds the cavernosa.

3. Hypodermis forms the outermost layer of the penis just under the skin.
Corpus Cavernosum
Paired masses that contain irregular vascular spaces separated by trabeculae of connective tissue & smooth muscle.

Numerous helicine (convoluted) arteries supply blood to the vascular spaces which drain into veins outside the erectile tissue
Corpus Spongiosum
Contains vascular spaces of uniform size within a fibroelastic lamina containing smooth muscle fibers.
Erection
Parasympathetic innervation is responsible for filling the blood sinuses in the corpa cavernosum and bulbus spongiosum

From local sensory input
Ejaculation
Controlled by Sympathetic motor neurons when sufficient sensory input from the penis to sensory neurons reaches the ejaculatory threshold in neuron

Neuron sends a message to the CNS

CNS sends a message back to the motor neurons stimulate the contraction of glands and urethra
Penile Urethra
Lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium except at urethral meatus (very tip) which is lined by stratified squamous.

Glands of Littre are mucus secreting glands in the penile urethra.
Semen
Contains spermatozoa, seminal fluid which contains fructose & citrate to provide energy

Also contains desquamated cells, prostatic concretions & urinary debris.
Semen
Avg volume 2.5-5ml/ejaculate

50-150million sperm/ml

At least 60% of sperms should have a normal shape & motility.