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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the primary organs of the male reproductive tract?
the Gonads: for men these are Testes.
What is the function of testes?
to produce germ cells, which are gametes (same thing as SPERM), as well as steroid hormones.
What are the accessory organs in the male reproductive tract?
1. a unique Ductal system design

2. Accessory glands (they produce juice to support sperm)
How are the testes composed anatomically?
They have seminiferous tubules - coiled very tightly inside, where the sperm develop.
What structures do sperm pass through as they go from the testes to the vas deferens?
1. Seminiferous tubules,
2. Rete testes
3. Epididymis
4. Vas deferens
Why are the testes outside the body?
to keep the temp a couple degrees below body temp, better for the little sperms to develop.
What hormones act on the testes?
The SAME ONES that act on the female reproductive organ (ovary) - FSH and LH!
(whew that makes things easy)
So how are the testes stimulated to develop?
1. Age, environment, emotion act on Higher Brain Centers.
2. Hypothalamus releases GnRH in pulses; stimulates FSH/LH release from pituitary;
3. LH/FSH act on testes to produce TESTOSTERONE (has its biological effects).
How does testosterone presence feedback onto the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary?
Anything else inhibit the pituitary?
Testosterone has negative feedback; inhibits LH/FSH, and GnRH from hypothal too.

Yes; Inhibit stops FSH release too.
what efect does continuous GnRH have on FSH and LH?
It inhibits their release, AND CAUSES INFERTILITY!
If a man takes anabolic steroids and abuses them, what will happen?
The dummy, he'll be sterile because it decreases FSH and LH production; the testes aren't stimulated, and sperm don't develop.
Where does Spermatogenesis take place?
Inside the seminiferous tubule.
How do sperm move as they develop inside the seminif tubule?
They move toward the center, the lumen.
What cells do sperm develop inside of, within the tubules?
Sertoli cells. Think alliteration: Sertoli, Structure, Sperm, Support, fSh.
What exactly do Sertoli cells do?
-provide structure/support
-provide nutrients
-garbage men
-release inhibin
What hormone stimulates Sertoli cells?
the one with s in it - FSH.
Where are Leydig cells located?
Outside the seminiferous tubules, in interstitial space.
What do Leydig cells do?
synthesize and release Testosterone, needed for spermatogenesis and Sertoli cells.
what hormone stimulates Leydig cells?
the hormone with the L - LH.
what is Androgen binding protein, and where does it come from?
A protein produced by Sertoli cells to carry testosterone and store it inside the seminif tubules.
When in boys does spermatogenesis begin?
at puberty - NOT in utero like in girls (ha we're more developed)
how do sperm cells divide during spermatogenesis?
one sperm produces two spermatogonium; one remains to maintain the germ line, the other continues to divide and differentiate.
How many days does it take for one spermatogonium to become a mature spermatozoa?
65 to 70 days!!
how many chromosomes are in one spermatogonia?
46; a set from each parent.
how many chromosomes are in a 2ndary spermatocyte?
23; that's b/c the cell has undergone one MEITIC division now, and in meiosis chromosomes don't replicate like they do in mitosis.
so in general, how does the ploidy of sperm change during maturation in seminif tubules?
They go from diploid spermatogonia to haploid spermatozoa.
What is the maturation sequence of sperm?
Spermatogonia ->
Primary spermatocytes ->
2ndary spermatocytes -> Spermatids ->
How big is a spermatozoa fully mature?
about 1-2 micra by 50 micra long
What is contained in the acrosome (head) of a spermatozoa?
PROTEOLYTIC enzymes to break down the ova membrane.
What is the sperm's molecular motor made of?
Microtubules, dynein arms, for a twisting motion.
What is in high amounts in spermatozoa that provides energy for metabolism and locomotion?
MITOCHONDRIA!!! (my favorite organelle)
What effect does LH have on Leydig cells again?
makes them synthesize TESTOSTERONE.
In what 3 ways is testosterone used by the body?
1. As testosterone, in muscles and testes (like you'd expect).
2. As ESTRADIOL (1?) produces effects on CNS/liver/fat.
3. As Dihydrotestosterone, has effects on reproduction/bone.
What converts testosterone to estradiol? (what enzyme)
What converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone?
This testosterone is much more potent than normal.
What are the 2 primary actions of androgens?
1. Stimulates growth/function of the reproductive tract before and during puberty; maintains the same after puberty.
2. 2ndary sex characteristics - bone, muscle, hair, voice.
What happens if a man has no androgens?
He has a high falsetto voice, decreased fertility, and is basically a girlie.
What happens if a man has too much androgens?
He gets Royd rage and is very violent, has aggressive libido, and better developed brain.
After sperm enters the vas deferens, what structures does it flow through?
1. Ampulla
2. Seminal vesicle
3. Prostate gland
4. Bulbourethral gland
5. Ejaculatory duct
6. Urethra
What does the Ampulla do?
Stores sperm; after a vasectomy, have to make sure this is empty or the man will still be fertile.
What is the function of the Seminal vesicle (don't confuse it with seminiferous tubule)
secretes about 75% of the semen volume, which is not sperm, and fructose for energy, prostaglandins, etc.
What is the prostate's function in making semen?
It adds buffers to protect the sperm from the female tract acidity.
What do the bulbourethral glands function in doing to semen?
Give it mucus for lubrication.
Where do sperm first become motile?
In the epididymis, before ever going through the vas deferens.
What is the corpus cavernosum?
the muscle that causes erection.
What nervous system causes erection?
would startling a man cause erection or not?
NOT - it would inhibit erection.
What are the 2 stimuli for erection?
1. Higher brain centers
2. Mechanoreceptors on the penis
what does stimulis do to cause erection?
1. Increases NO neuron activity
2. Decreases sympathetic activ.
What is the effect of NO and lack of SNS?
Arterioles to the penis dilate and allow blood to engorge it. Directly causes erection and feeds-forward by causing venous compression.
What is Viagra's mode of operation?
it inhibits smooth muscle relaxation by inactivating cGMP
Is parasymp nervous stimuli the only nervous involvement in erection?
no; sympathetic stimulus is responsible for emission.
How does emission take place?
SNS stimulates smooth muscle contraction in the vas deferens and epididymis, so sperm go to the urethra.
What prevents urine from mixing with sperm?
the internal sphincter closes the bladder off to the ureter.
What nervous tissue type is responsible for ejaculation?
Again, Sympathetic; causes rythmic muscle contractions and semen expulsion.
What are 3 male reproduction disorders to be aware of?
1. Klinefelter's syndrome.
2. Hyperprolactinemia
3. Testicular feminization
what is klinefelter's syndrome?
Chromosomal abnormality where the male has two X chromosomes and one Y - it's extra.
What main symptoms result from klinefelter's?
Decreased male 2' sex charact.
Decr. sperm/testosterone
-> sterile and low IQ.
What characterizes testicular feminization?
the patient has the gonads of one sex and the genitalia of the other.
What causes testicular feminization?
GENETIC defect in the testosterone receptor; there's plenty of the hormone, but no response.
What phenotype is usually seen w/ testicular feminization?
-Male testes and genotype
-Female external genitals.
What is hyperprolactinemia?
Same as in females:
Pituitary tumor causes increased PROLACTIN which inhibits LH and FSH, so infertility and lack of sexual libido.