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25 Cards in this Set

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Prostatitis
dysuria, frequency, urgency, low back pain
Acute: bacterial (STD if younger)
Chronic: bacterial or abacterial (UTI)
BPH
age related increase in estradiol with possible sensitization of prostate to growth promoting effects of DHT
nodular enlargement of periurethral lobes
BPH sxs
incr freq of urination, nocturia, difficulty starting and stopping urine, dysuria
may lead to distention and hypertrophy of the bladder, hydroneprhosis, UTI
BPH tx
finasteride or a-1 blockers
prostatic adenocarc
arises from posterior lobe; dx by DRE and bx; PSA incr (total) decrease in fraction of free PSA
osteoblastic mets in bone (incr alk phos and PSA)
slow growing
cryptorchidism
undesc testis (one or both)
lack of spermatogenesis due to incr body temp
assoc with incr risk of GCT
seminoma
malignant; painless testicular enlargement; most common testicular tumor, mostly affecting males 15-35
embryonal carc
malignant; painful
worse prognosis than seminoma
assoc with incr hCG
yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor
analagous to ovarian yolk sac tumor (incr AFP)
choriocarc
malignant
incr hCG
teratoma
unlike in females, mature teratoma is most often malignant
Leydig cell tumor
benign, contains Reinke crystals, usually androgen producing, gynecomastic in men, precocious puberty in boys
Sertoli cell tumor
benign, androblastoma from sex cord stroma
testicular lymphoma
most common testicular cancer in older men
bowen disease of penis
solitary crust plaque usually on shaft of penis or on scrotum; 50 y/os, rarely becomes invasie SqCC
erythroplasia of Queyrat
red velvety plaques, usually involving the glans; otherwise similar to Bowen's disease
Bowenoid papulosis
multiple papular lesions, affects younger age group; usually does not become invasive
SqCC
rare in circumcised men; uncommon in US and Europe; more common in Asia, Africa, So America
assoc with HPV 16 and 18
ballanitis
candida infection of foreskin and glans
tx: topical antifungals (Nystatin)
finasteride
5a-reductase inhibitor (decreases conversion of testo to DHT)
useful in BPH, male pattern baldness
causes gynecomastia, edema
flutamide
nonsteroidal comp inhib of androgens at testo receptor
used in prostatic carc
ketoconazole, spironolactone
inhibit steroid synthesis; used in tx of PCOS to prevent hirsutism
Leuprolide
GnRH analog with agonist properties when used in pulsatile fashion; antag if continuous
use: infertility, prostate cancer (with flutamide), uterine fibroids
tox: antiandrogen, n/v
sildenafil, vardenafil
inhibit cAMP PDE causing incr in cAMP; smooth muscle relaxation in corpus cavernosum, incr blood flow and penile erection
sildenafil tox
HA, flushing, dyspepsia, blue-green color vision
hypotension if taken with nitrates