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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
motor neuron
neuron that sends signals to muscles to control movement
neuron connected to other neurons, not sense organs or muscles
sensory neuron
neuron that responds to input from sense organs
glial cell
cell that fills the gaps between neurons, influences communication between neurons, and is involved in the care and feeding of neurons
brain circuit
set of neurons that affect one another
sending end of a neuron, extends from cell body, (usually) covered by myelin sheath
terminal button
structure at end of axon that releases chemicals into synaptic cleft when neuron is triggered
receive messages from the axons of other neurons
chemical that alters the effects of neurotransmitters
process by which surplus neurotransmitter is reabsorbed back into the sending neuron
chemical that mimics the effects of a neurotransmitter, sometimes by preventing reuptake
chemical that blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter, sometimes by blocking a receptor or enhancing the reuptake mechanism
brain and spinal cord
autonomic nervous system and skeletal system
sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
occipital lobe
devoted entirely to different aspects of VISION
temporal lobe
processing sound, entering new information into memory, storing visual memories, comprehending language
parietal lobe
registering spatial location, attention, motor control
frontal lobe
speech, search for specific memory, reasoning, emotions
Free Pot=Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal
unilateral visual neglect
results from damage to parietal lobe, typically ignore everything on side opposite damage e.g. shave one side of face
split-brain patients
have had corpus callosum severed
cortex, thalamus, limbic system, and basal ganglia
brainstem structures that connect forebrain and hindbrain, incl. part of reticular formation
medulla, pons, cerebellum, parts of reticular formation
subcortical region, receives inputs from sensory and motor systems, plays crucial role in attention, often thought of as switching center
crucial role in eating, drinking, regulating body temp, blood pressure, heart rate, hormone regulation
allows us to store new info in brain's memory banks
involved in emotions such as fear, anger; ability to read facial expressions
limbic system
set of brain areas incl. hippocampus and amygdala involved in fighting, fleeing, feeding and sex
basal ganglia
involved in planning, producing movement, learning habits
set of neural structures at the base of the brain, incl. medulla, pons, reticular formation
automatic control of breathing, swallowing, and blood circulation
reticular formation
two-part structure, ascending part (RAS) keeps you awake and alert, descending part important in producing ANS reactions, connecting impulses from involuntary muscles to voluntary muscles
bridge connecting brainstem and cerebellum, involved in physical coordination, estimating time, paying attention
neuroendocrine system
makes hormones, regulated by CNS, provides CNS with information
electroencephalograph, records electrical current produced by the brain, e.g. in response to a particular stimulus
brain scanning techniques that produce a picture of the structure/functioning of neurons
computer-assisted tomography, technique that produces a 3D image of brain structure using X-rays
magnetic resonance imaging, technique that uses the magnetic properties of atoms to take pictures of brain structures
positron emission tomography, technique that uses small amounts of radiation to track blood or energy consumption in the brain
functional magnetic resonance imaging, type of MRI that detects the amount of oxygen being brought to a particular place in the brain
transcranial magnetic stimulation, technique where brain is stimulated from outside by putting wire coil on person's head and delivering a magnetic pulse to make neurons under the coil fire.
Mendelian inheritance
transmission of characteristics by individual elements of inheritance, each acting separately

1) for each trait, offspring inherits an element from each parent

2) in some cases, one element is dominant; only when both elements are recessive will a recessive trait be expressed
knockout mice
mice in which part of genetic code has been snipped away, deleting all or crucial parts of a gene so that it is disabled
knockin mice
mice in which a new sequence of genetic code is added or is substituted for one already there
neural process whereby certain connections among neurons are eliminated; "use it or lose it"
passive interaction
when genetically shaped tendencies of the parents/siblings produce an environment that is passively received by the child, eg. more intelligent parents create a more intellectually stimulating environment
evocative/reactive interaction
when genetically influenced characteristics draw out behaviors from other people, e.g. "blondes have more fun"
active interaction
when people choose, partly based on genetic tendencies, to put themselves in specific situations and avoid others e.g. timid person avoids loud amusement park
dizygotic twins
grow from two separate eggs fertilized by two different sperm
monozygotic twins
grow from one egg fertilized by one sperm