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12 Cards in this Set

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Nervous tissue is made up of two basic types of cells (also their function (1) each)
1) Neuron - functions for communication
2) Glial Cells - function for support of neurons
Divisions of Nervous System (3)
1) Central Nervous System - includes brain, spinal cord, optic nerve, and retina
2) Peripheral Nervous System - includes nerves projecting out of and into brain and spinal cord, peripheral ganglia, and communicating nerves between peripheral ganglia
3) Autonomic Nervous System - Sympathetic and Parasympathetic part of PNS (extends into PNS)
How many neurons are in the brain alone and what do they do
-10^12 in brain alone, many more in rest of nervous system.
-They process and convey information/signals
-Very involved in their own maintenance. Make their own proteins for export
Neurotransmitters are...
chemical signals passed between neurons at synapses
Which direction do dendrites and axons carry impulses. What components do these two have?
Dendrites carry impulses toward cell body
Axons carry impulses away from cell body - from the soma to the periphery.
Both have complex cytoskeleton of neurofilaments, microtubules, and microfilaments but many fewer organelles than soma.
Components of Neurons (1, it has 5 components)
Cell body (soma/perikaryon) containing nucleus, RER (Nissl substance), Golgi, mitochondria, and cytoskeleton
Axon Hillock and its relation to dendrites
-Pyramidal portion of soma where it joins with axon is called axon hillock. Does not contain Nissl substance.
-Dendritic inputs are summed at hillock and may result in propogation of nerve impulse down axon.
Anterograde Flow and how is it run
Organelles and macromolecules made in soma are transported down axon. Driven by ATPase, microtubule-associated protein kinesin:
-slowly (about 2 mm/day; proteins and actin filaments)
-rapidly (200 mm/day; mitochondria, vesicles of neurotransmitters)
Retrograde flow - how is it run and what does it carry
Driven by ATPase, microtubule associated protein dynein (moves synaptic vesicles)
Carries e.g. endocytic vesicles from axon terminus back toward soma for reloading with neurotransmitter.
Types of Neurons (3)
Multipolar - most are this type, have many dendrites and an axon or two, soma w/lard number of processes, ex. in motor horn of spinal cord.
Bipolar - some are this, with one dendrite and one axon, ex. in retina
Pseudounipolar - some are this, ex. sensory neurons in doral root ganglia
Components of Grey and White Matter, and Central Canal
-"Butterfly" of Grey matter has abundance of neuron cell bodies, some myelin, and glia
-White matter has few neuron cell bodies, lots of myelin, and glia
-Central canal, filled with CSF, lined by ependymal cells (glia)
Posterior (dorsal) horns and Anterior (ventral) honrs - components and function
Posterior (dorsal) horns have sensory neurons receiving sensory input from neurons with cell bodies in dorsal root ganglia and dendrites on end organs, ex. skin
-Anterior horns have motor neurons sending out axons to innervate peripheral skeletal muscle