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19 Cards in this Set

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Fresh/preserved stool:

- exam method
- look for what?
Macroscopy
- Blood
- Mucus
- Worms
- Proglottids

Microscopy

- Cysts
- Eggs
- Larvae
- Trophozoites
Sigmoidoscopic material:

- exam method
- look for what?
Scraped or aspirated mucosal material

Motile ENTAMOEBA trophozoites
Perianal Specimen:

- exam method
- look for what?
Cellulose tape slide or
Anal swap

Pinworms
Duodenal aspirates:

- exam method
- look for what?
Endoscope or String test

Strongyloides larvae
Worm eggs
Giardia
How do you check for parasitic infections of blood?

What do you look for? x4
Blood films (thick and thin) with Giemsa and/or hematoxylin stains.

Malaria
Trypanasomiasis
Filariasis
Leishmaniasis
What tests are useful for detecting intracellular parasites?

What are some of these parasites
Tissue biopsy w/ Giemsa stain of:

Bone marrow
Liver
Spleen

Leishmaniasis
Toxoplasma
What test is useful for detecting microfilariae?

Example of organism
Skin snips

Onchocerca volvulus
PCR use for Plasmodium Vivax:

- what do you look for?
Circumsporozoite gene
PCR use for Leishmania sp:

- what do you look for?
kDNA minicircle sequence
PCR use for Trypanosoma cruzi:

- what do you look for?
kDNA minicircle sequence
PCR use for Toxoplasma gondii:

- what do you look for?
B1 repetitive gene
p30 surface antigen
Recombinant DNA sequences
PCR use for Entamoeba histolytica:

- what do you look for?
p145 tandem repeat sequence
Describe the value of doing cultures for parasites.
Not commonly used

Too difficult and/or cumbersome to cultivate
Describe the value of doing Animal inoculation for parasites.
Not practical
Describe the value of doing xenodiagnosis for parasites.
Good for Chagas disease using uninfected reduvid bugs.
Describe the steps in making an Enzyme immunoassay for the ELISA test
1. Parasite antigen pre-coated onto an ELISA plate

2. Patient serum which contains antibodies mixed in

3. Anti-human immmunoglobulin coupled to an enzyme indicates positive test.
Indirect immunofluorescence assay is used to detect _________ in ________________.
antibodies

serum or other bodily fluid
Describe the steps in making an Enzyme immunoassay for the EIA test.
1. Parasite antigens pre-coated onto plastic bead

2. Patient serum which contains antibodies mixed in.

3. Anti-human immunoglobulin coupled to an enzyme in positive test.
Immunoblot is used to detect ____________
the presence of an antigen