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18 Cards in this Set

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What organism causes African Sleeping Disease?
Trypanosoma brucei
Chloroquine is used to treat what organism(s)?

Effectiveness of drug?
Plasmodia sp. & Amaebae

Widespread resistance to drug
Inside the RBC, malarial parasites must metabolize what in order to grow?

What is the RBC response?

How does the parasite counter?
Degarde HEMOGLOBIN

Produces the toxic HEME

Polymerizes heme to form non-toxci HEMOZOIN
Describe the mechanism of chloroquine.
Enters RBC

Prevents conversion of toxic Heme to non-toxic Hemozoin

Binds to Heme to make it more toxic for parasite
TMP-SMX:

- takes advantage of what pathway?
- agonist or antagonist of what metabolite?
- used to treat what organisms? x3
Folic acid pathway

Folic acid antagonist

Plasmodium & Toxoplasma
& Bacterial infections
In what type of pneumonia is TMP-SMX used as the drug of choice in treatment?
Pneumocystis carinni
pneumonia
Describe the mechanism for TMP-SMZ.
Sulfanomides competitively inhibit the incorporation of PABA (p-aminobenzoic acid).
(Dihdropteroate Synthetase)

TMP prevents reduction of
dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate
(Dihydrofolate Reductase)
Folic acid is an essential precursor for what two genetic metabolites?

These metabolites are responsible for what two processes?

Why is this important?
The nucleosides:

Uridine & Thymidine

DNA Replication & DNA Transcription

Microbes are dependent on the de novo synthesis of these metabolites, so inhibiting the enzymes will really fuck them up.
Melaminophenyl aresenical

- treats what organisms
- mechanism?
Trypanosomes

Stops the reduction of oxidized thiols (which is a unique mechanism for parasites)
Pentamidine

- treats what organism
- prophylaxis against?
Leishmaniasis

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
(sleeping sickness)
Pentamidine

- mechanism x3
Inhibits DNA & RNA

Binds to and aggregates ribosomes

Inhibits glucose metabolism,
protein & RNA synthesis,
intracellular amino acid transport.
Name the drugs that block ribosomal peptide synthesis. x5
Paromomycin
Clindamycin
Spiramycin
Tetracycline
Doxycycline
Paromomycin, Clindamycin, Spiramycin, Tetracycline, Doxycycline all are used to treat what five types of diseases?
Amebiasis
Babesiosis
Cryptosporidiosis
Toxoplasmosis
Malaria
Metronidazole

- used to treat what diseases
- mechanism
Giardiasis
Amebiasis
Trichomoniasis

Binds to DNA, causing breakage, thus inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis
Ciprofloxacin

- used to treat what disease
- mechanism
Malaria

Inhibits DNA GYRASE
(thus blocking DNA metabolism)
Difluoromethylornithine

- used to treat what
- mechanism
- resulting effect?
African Trypanisomiasis

Inhibits ornithine decarboxylase

thus
interfering with Polyamine Metabolism,
thus inhibiting DNA synthesis
Allopurinal

- used to treat what parasite disease
- used to also treat what non-parasitic disease
- function
- mechanism
Leishmaniasis
Gout

Functions as alternative substrate for HGPRTase

Incorporation of allopurinol riboside into RNA inhibits protein synthesis
Suramin

- used to treat what?
- mechanism
African Trypanisomiasis

Inhibits sn-glycerol phosphate oxidase
Inhibits G3P dehydrogenase
(thus decrease ATP/energy and die)