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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the basic components of an antibody?
2 Identical heavy chains
2 Identical light chains
What three things do all heavy and light chains have in common in terms of structure?
Variable regions
Constant regions

Disulfide bonds
Light Chain:

- # of domains (specify)
- # of constant regions (specify)
(1 Variable & 1 Constant)

(Kappa & Lambda)
Heavy Chain:

- # of domains (specify)
- # of constant regions (specify)
(1 Variable & 3-4 Constant)

(gamma, mu, alpha, delta, epsilon)
Two general types of antibodies in terms of location.
Membrane bound (B-cells)

What determines the antibody ISOTYPES (class)? What are they?
The constant region

The biological activity region is where on antibody?

What does it do?
Constant region of heavy chain

Interacts with proteins, complements, mast cells, etc
The variable domains region is where and does what?
First ~100 amino acids on N-terminus of heavy/light chain

Antigen binding region
The antigen binding occurs specifically where?
In the pocket where Variable-Heavy (VH) & Variable-light (VL) come together.
What is an epitope?
Potion of antigen that is recognized by antibody/B-cell
Epitope specificity is determined by what?
3 hypervariable regions (CDR's)
T/F - Two B-cells will secrete the same Ig's.
False, due to VDJ recombination
VDJ Recombination is what?
Process of rearrangement of Ig locus
Describe the structure of B-cells:

- During maturation
- After maturation
- After activation
VBJ rearrangement

Variable gene segment rearrangement does NOT change

Heavy chain's CONSTANT region changes, but NOT the epitope specificity.
Functions of IgG
Pretty much all, EXCEPT for:

B-cell antigen receptor
Trigger Mast cell degranulation
IgM functions
Complement activation (PRIMARY)

B-cell activation

Antigen binding
IgA functions
Naive memory

Antigen binding
IgD functions
B-cell antigen receptor

Antigen binding
IgE functions
Triggers Mast Cell Degranulation (PRIMARY)

Naive memory

Antigen binding
How are subclasses in Ig differentiated?

Which immunoglobulins have subclasses?
Based on # and arrangement of DISULFIDE bonds

IgG & IgA
Describe the plasma concentrations of immunoglobulins.
IgG > IgA > IgM
Which immunoglobulin crosses the placental barrier?

What mediates this transfer?

FcRB ("Brambell" receptor)

- predominant where?
- how do they get there?
- transfer mediated by what?
Mucosal secretions

Cross epithelial cell layer

Polyimmunoglobulin receptors
IgE is associated with what cells?
Mast cells and Basophils
What would you expect as the immunoglobulin count in CNS for a healthy individual?
What happens to B-cells if they don't see an antigen?
They Die
What happens to B-cells if they do see an antigen?

Class Switching

For B-cell activation, what is needed? x2
1. Binding of antigen to Ig

2. CD4 T helper cells
What can B-cells be differentiated into?
Plasma cells (Ab secreting)

Memory cells (non-secreting)
What is the PRIMARY response to an initial antigen exposure?
1. Long lag phase
2. IgM is first responder
3. Gradual switch to IgG
4. Low affinity antibodies
What is the SECONDARY response to antigen exposure?
1. Short lag phase
2. Predominantly IgG
3. Rapid rise in titer
4. High affinity antibodies
What are the 5 effector functions of antibodies?

Complement activation


Neutralization of virus/bacteria

Neutralization of toxins/venoms
What does an antibody neutralize?
Binds to virus/bacteria/toxins/venoms