Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Extracellular infection trigger what type of immune response?
Intracellular infection trigger what type of immune response?
Cell mediated / T-cell mediated immune response
Extracellular Pathogens:

- grows where?
- triggers what immune response?
- must avoid what? x2
- many produce what?
Outside of cell (extracellularly)


Phagocytosis & Complement mediated killing

Facultative Intracellular Parasites:

- can grow where
- what are two types?
Intracellularly and extracellularly

Generalized facultative intracelluar
Specialized facultative intracellular
Describe Specialized Facultative Intracellular Parasites.
Can grow intracellulary and extracellulary.

Can grow in NONphagocytic cells

but killed by macrophages
Describe Generalized Facultative Intracellular Parasites.
Can grow extracellularly and intracellularly.

Can grow inside macrophages,

but killed by ACTIVATED macrophages.
Obligate Intracellular Parasites:

- grow where
All viruses can be classified as what type of pathogen?
Obligate intracellular parasite
T/F: Pathogenic bacteria comprise only a sliver of the total amount of bacteria out there.
List the 6 major families associated with Bacterial pathogens causing human disease.
1. Bacteroidetes
2. Fusobacteria
3. Firmicutes (Gram +)

4. Proteobacteria (Gram -)
5. Chlamydia
6. Spirochetes
T/F : Based on the evolutionary tree of life, the Gram (-) and Gram (+) bacteria are not that different.

Different based on molecular genome studies
What are the 4 classification categories of bacterial pathogens?
Gram (+)
Gram ( - )


- bacterial category?
- why unique in their family?
- tell them apart how?
Gram Positive

Produce endospores

Bacillus is Catalase Positive
Clostridia is Catalase Negative
Which Gram + bacteria does NOT stain, but HAS a cell wall?

(must use Acid Fast stain)
Which Gram + bacteria does NOT stain AND does NOT have a cell wall?
3 Major Genera for Spirochetes


T/F : Spirochetes do NOT stain.

(Spirochetes ID'd with Fluorescent Ab)
Describe the organisms of the Chlamydia family.
Obligate Intracellular Parasites
List the 2 major pathogens associated with Chlamydia.
C. Trachomatis

C. Pneumoniae
List 3 organisms of Gram (-) that are considered Obligate Intracellular Parasites.


Top 10 causes of death in US accounts for what % of all deaths?
What is the #1 cause of death in US?
Heart Disease
Which cause of death in US has probable infectious dz involvement in some cases? x4
Heart Dz (1)

CA (2)

Kidney Dz (9)

Chronic Liver Dz (12)
Which leading cause of death in US has a Definite Infectious Dz involvement in Most cases?
Influenza & Pneumonia (7)

Septicemia (10)
What % of All Worldwide Deaths are due to Infectious Dz?
Which Infectious Dz associated Cause of Death Worldwide is SURGING since 1992? x2
HIV/AIDS (2) --> 2.8 million

Tetanus (8) --> 210,000
#1 BACTERIAL cause of death worldwide
Which worldwide leading cause of death Dz has vaccines available everywhere? x4
Measles (6)
Pertussis (7)
Tetanus (8)

Hep B virus (11)
Which Infectious Dz associated Cause of Death Worldwide is RAPIDLY DECLINING since 1992?
Hep B virus
Which worldwide leading cause of death Dz has vaccines available everywhere, EXCEPT the US?
Which worldwide leading cause of death Dz has vaccines available for ONLY SOME organisms causing the Dz?
Define a parasite
Obtains nutrients from Host.

Does NOT have to kill host, BUT HARMS host
Differentiate the definition for

- Colonization
- Infection
- Disease
Colonization --> Infection --> Disease

Colonization: organism adheres to cell surface or ECM

Infection: organism colonize and grow
(may NOT have Dz - symptomatic vs. asymptomatic)

Disease: Bacteria colonize, grow, AND cause damage to host
Define Pathogen & Pathogenicity
Pathogen - organism that causes Dz

Pathogenicity - organism's Potential to cause Dz
Virulence defined
Severity of a disease caused by the organism
Virulence is BASED on what 4 things?
1. Dosage (infectious dosage)

2. Invasiveness

3. Toxigenicity

4. Immune Status
What organism has an infectious dose of 1 bacterium?
Francisella Tularensis
What organism has an infectious dose of 10 bacterium?
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli
What organism has an infectious dose of greater than 10^8 bacterium?
Vibrio Cholerae
What is Infectious Dose?
# of organisms needed infect 50% of the population
Why do bacteria cause Dz?
To make more bacteria (replication)

(Illness is side effect)
How do Infections Occur? x3
1. Normally sterile site gets infected

2. Presence of NON-floral organism

3. Presence of normal floral organism at a DIFFERENT SITE
List 6 normally sterile sites.
1. CNS
2. Blood
3. CSF

4. Bones
5. Internal organs
(except stomach & intestines)

6. Lymph
Define Latency
CHRONIC infection with organism WITHOUT signs/symptoms
Opportunists defined
Organism that normally does NOT cause Dz, unless..

- host is immunocompromised
- site of infection is Sterile site
Commensal defined
Microbes live with host

NO HARM to both

ONE Derives benefit
List 3 benefits associated with Normal Flora.
1. Prevent pathogen colonization

2. Provide Vitamins

3. Aids in Digestion
List 5 importances of Normal Flora organisms.
1. Protection from colonization
2. Maturation of immune system
3. Stimulate Tissue Development

4. Metabolism (digests substances)
5. Response Modulator for Epithelial Cell Injury
List 3 Adverse effects of Normal Flora organisms.
1. Dental caries / Periodontal Dz / SBE

2. Autoimmunity trigger

3. Opportunistic (some of them)
List the 5 steps in Biofilm formation
1. Reversible ADsorption (seconds)
2. Irreversible Attachment (sec. - mins)
3. Growth, Division of bacteria (hrs - days)

4. Production of Exopolymer & biofilm (hrs - days)

5. Attachment of other organisms to biofilm (days - months)
T/F - Biofilm can be composed of single organism.

Single organism OR Polymicrobic

- very resistant to what x2
- structural components
- found where in hospitals
1. Anti-Microbials
2. Disinfectants

1. Stalk
2. Cap

What % of Infections are of UNKNOWN Etiology?
6 events that take place in ALL infectious Dz
1. Encounter
2. Portal of Entry
3. Spread

4. Multiplication
5. Damage
6. Outcome
What are the 6 Portals of Entry
1. GU tract
2. GI tract

3. Mucous membrane
4. Respiratory tract

5. Blood
6. Skin
What are the 6 vehicles of Transmission?
1. Fingers
2. Food
3. Feces

4. Flies
5. Fomites
6. Fornication
List 5 common types of transmission
1. Sexual
2. Oral - Oral (EBV - Mono)

3. Fecal - Oral
4. Animals (Zoonoses)
5. Respiratory droplets
What are the 2 major types of infections?

Intracellular Infection

- examples of organisms
- Key IMMUNE response
Virus, Protozoa,
Some Bacteria, Some Fungi

"Cellular Immunity"
(Cell mediated or T-cell response)
Extracellular Infection

- examples of organisms
- Key IMMUNE response
Virus, Protozoa,
Bacteria, Fungi

Antibody Respoonse
(B-cell mediated)
Extracellular Pathogens

- Must escape what immune process x2
- Many will produce what?
1. Phagocytosis
2. Complement mediated killing

What are the 2 subtypes of Intracellular pathogens?
Facultative Intracellular Parasites

Obligate Intracellular Parasites
Facultative Intracellular Parasites can grow where?

What are the 2 sub-subtypes of Facultative Intracellular Parasites?
Specialized Facultative Intracellular

Generalized Facultative Intracellular
SPECIALIZED Facultative Intracellular Parasites

- can grow where?
- killed by?
Within NON-Phagocytic cells

GENERALIZED Facultative Intracellular Parasites

- can grow where?
- killed by?
Normal Macrophages

ACTIVATED Macrophages
Obligate Intracellular Parasites

- Growth Requirement
- Types of organisms in this group x2
Viable Host Cell

Some Protozoa
List the types of Bacterial Invasion
1. Intracellular Parasitism
(microbe internalized)
(Salmonella & Shigella)

2. Tissue Spreading
(Does NOT go inside cell)
(Staph. Aureus)
Neisseria Gonorrhoeae is an intracellular bacterium found in what cell?