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37 Cards in this Set

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In DNA polymerase, what type of nucleotides can be used?
Deoxynucleotide 5' Triphosphates
In order for DNA polymerase to add nucleotides, what must be laid down first?
Primer is required
Describe the exonuclease activity for Prokaryote polymerases.
DNA Pol I:
5' to 3' and 3' to 5'

DNA Pol II: --> don't need to know
3' to 5'

DNA Pol III:
3' to 5'
Which prokaryote DNA polymerase has a very high elongation rate.
The WORKHORSE

DNA Pol III -- 30,000 bases/min

(DNA Pol I is 600)
Describe the elongation of the lagging strand.
RNA primer get placed

DNA Pol III
attaches & elongates,
but fall off at next primer
(b/c no 5' to 3' exonuclease activity)

DNA Pol I
jumps on and chews up RNA primer,
AND fills in gap before falling off.

DNA ligase joins the fragments.
In Prokaryotes, what is the RNA Polymerase CORE consist of?
Just the RNA polymerase
In Prokaryotes, what is the RNA Polymerase HOLOENZYME consist of?
RNA polymerase and Sigma factor
What does sigma factor do in Prokaryotes?
Aids RNA polymerase in recognizing promoters.
Promoters in Prokaryote transciption, is rich in what?
T and A (e.g. - TATA box)
In Prokaryote transcription,

- what elongates mRNA
- what unwinds DNA
Both are done by RNA Polymerase
Describe the Rho Independent termination of Prokaryotes.
Hairpin with string of U's on mRNA

Bond created with U's are thermodynamically unstable.
Transcription for Eukaryote vs. Prokaryote:

- RNA Polymerases
- mRNA x3
- Coupling
Eukaryote have 3 RNA Polymerases
Prokaryotes have 1 RNA Polymerase

Eukaryote mRNA is:
- long lived
- modified at 5' and 3' ends
- Monocistronic

Bacterial transcription and translation is coupled in Bacteria
What enzyme ensure fidelity in translation?
Amino acid - tRNA synthetase
Initiation of Bacterial Translation requires what? x5
tRNA
Initiation Factors (IFs) x3
mRNA
Energy
Ribosome Subunits (30S & 50S)
TIMER
Bacterial Ribosome

- A site does what?
- P site does what?
- E site does what?
Arrival of the Amino acid

Production of the Peptide bond btw amino acids

Ejaculation of the protein
Gene regulation occurs at what level for:

- Prokaryotes
- Eukaryotes
Level of transcription
(tho may occur @ level of translation)

Level of translation
In bacteria, gene regulation at the transcription level means what? x2
mRNA very unstable

Rapid response to environmental changes
In bacteria, gene transcription is coupled with what?
coupled with translation
In bacteria, genes are grouped into what?
Grouped into operons
For microbial genetics, define Operon
UNIT of DNA
that is
COORDINATELY regulated

and

transcribed into a single
POLYCISTRONIC
mRNA
For microbial genetics, define the term Inducible
Substance must be added to induce gene expression
For microbial genetics, define the term Repressible
Substance must be added to repress gene expression
For microbial genetics, define the term Negative Control
When regulatory protein is bound to DNA, Operon is OFF
For microbial genetics, define the term Positive Control
When regulatory protein is bound to DNA, Operon is ON
Gene function forms the basis of what function?
Cell function
If cloning of DNA, what is useful to study?
microbes
E. coli DNA

- Length
- Replication rate
1.3 meters (4 million bases)

100,000 bases/minute
Which E. coli polymerases can synthesize from:

- intact DNA
- Primed ssDNA
- Primed ssDNA + SBP
None

DNA Pol I

DNA Pol I & DNA Pol II
Describe the addition of nucleotides in terms of which ends react with which molecules.
3' OH of first nucleotide reacts with

5' Triphosphate of second nucleotide
What are the phases of RNA SYNTHESIS?
Initiation

Elongation

Termination
Bacterial ribosome contains how many:

- proteins
- RNA's
50+

3
Number of:

- Total triplet codons
- Start codons (list)
- Stop codons (list)
61

1 (AUG)

3 (UGA, UAA, UAG)
Define Degenerate
More than one codon for many amino acids
Describe tRNA wobble
3rd position is variable for many codons coding for same amino acid
Describe what happened in the "Trojan Horse Experiment" involving tRNA.
Cys-tRNA chemically changed to Ala-tRNA.

During translation,
the Ala-tRNA binded to Cys codons
Ensuring Fidelity in translation

Amino acid + ATP --> ???
(Amino acid)-(AMP)
Ensuring Fidelity in translation

(Amino acid)-(AMP) + tRNA --> ???
(Amino acid)-(tRNA)