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97 Cards in this Set

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T/F - Some species of Archaea live in digestive tract.
True. Some do live in digestive tract.
T/F - Archaea have peptidoglycan.
False. They don't have peptidoglycan

(Membrane Biochemistry different from bacteria)
T/F - Colony appearance will give important clues relating to the shape of individual bacteria.
False. Does NOT relate to shape of individual bacteria. Though it may provide keys to its type.
Mucoid appearance of bacterial colony indicates what?
Indicates Capsule
Waxy appearance of bacterial colony indicates what?
Indicates High Lipid Content
Mycobacterium would have what type of colony appearance?
It would have WAXY appearance.

Indicating high lipid content.
Thin, spread out appearance in bacterial colonies would indicate what?
It would indicate Highly motile organism
Pigments of bacterial colony would indicate what?

Why?
Natural habitat.

b/c it is a form of protection against light.
What does a cell envelope consist of? x4
1. Cell membrane(s)

2. Cell wall (if present) including imbedded proteins

3. Glycocalyx / Capsule (if present)

4. Flagella
T/F - Bacterial cell envelopes have peptidoglycan.
True. It does contain peptidoglycan.
Which type of bacteria has thick cell envelopes? thin envelopes?
Gram positive

Gram negative
Gram Positives has what kind of acids imbedded in its Cell Envelope? x2

What is this info used for?
Teichoic acid
Lipoteichoic acid

Serotyping
What give Gram positive bacteria its negative charge?
Teichoic and Lipoteichoic acids in the cell envelope
Which physical character of Gram negative bacteria has significance in respect to Penicillan.
Outer membrane (LPS) limits accessibility of penicillan
Where would you find virulence factors in the bacterial cell envelope?
The periplasmic space

of Gram negative bacteria
Gram Staining:

- What color means positive?
- Not reliable for what kind of organisms? x3
Purple

Dead/damaged organisms
Organisms with no peptidoglycan
MYCOBACTERIA with waxy coating
Describe the components of lipids in Eurkaryotic membrane. x2
Phosphatidylcholine (PC)

with Sterols
Describe the components of lipids in Prokaryotic membrane. x3
Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)

Phosphatidylglycerol (PG)

Cardiolipin

No sterols
Which two Prokaryotes DO HAVE sterols in their cell membrane?
Helicobacter

Mycoplasmas
In Prokaryotes, glucose is modified:

- where
- with what
- what type of transport is used
cytosol

PTS (Phosphotransferase System)

Group Transport
Describe ABC Transport in:

- Gram Negative
- Gram Positive
Periplasmic binding proteins used

Cytoplasmic membrane proteins used
Peptidoglycan Layer:

- AKA
- Important for what? x3
Murein

1. Resistance to osmotic stress
2. Antibiotic target
3. Pyrogenic activity
T/F - Peptidoglycan layer is permeable, thus allowing diffusion.
True. It is NOT impermeable
What is the backbone of the peptidoglycan made up of?
NAM (N-Acetylmuramic acid)

NAG (N-Acetylglucosamine)
What is unique about the beta(1,4) bond in the glycan backbone of the peptidoglycan layer?
It is sensitive to lysozymes.
Lysozymes are most active against which bacteria?

Where can you find lysozymes?
Gram Positive bacteria

Tears, saliva, egg whites
Describe the E. coli (Gram Negative) crossbridge within the Peptidoglycan
Bond between DAP and D-Alanine
Describe the S. aureus (Gram Positive) crossbridge within the Peptidoglycan
Bond between L-lysine and a chain of Glycines
DAP (Diaminopimelic acid):

- related to which amino acid
Lysine
Which one is NEVER found in Eukaryotes:

- NAM
- NAG
- DAP
NAM and DAP
Which of these has Ribosomes sensitive to Cm/Strep/Kan?

- Bacteria
- Archaea
- Eukarya
Bacteria
Which of these has Ribosomes resistant to Diptheria Toxins?

- Bacteria
- Archaea
- Eukarya
Bacteria
Which of these has Introns?

- Bacteria
- Archaea
- Eukarya
Eukarya
What are the Initiator tRNA for the following?

- Bacteria
- Archaea
- Eukarya
Formylmethionine

Methionine

Methionine
What are the ribosomes for the following?

- Bacteria
- Archaea
- Eukarya
70S

70S

80S
Which of these has a Peptidoglycan?

- Bacteria
- Archaea
- Eukarya
Bacteria
Discuss the lipids linkage for the following?

- Bacteria
- Archaea
- Eukarya
Ester-linked

ETHER-linked

Ester-linked
Discuss the RNA Polymerase for the following?

- Bacteria
- Archaea
- Eukarya
ONE (4 subunits)

several (8-12 subunits)

THREE (12-14 subunits each)
Important clinical types of bacteria are? x4
Gram Positive
Gram Negative (Proteobacteria)

Spirochetes
Chlamydia
The typical bacterial diameter is?
0.5 - 1.0 micrometer
Name the following bacterial morphology
Answers
Which bacterial groups have branched filamentous? x2
Actinomyces

Nocardia
PURPLE pigmented pus seen in cultures may be an indication for what organism?
Chromobacterium Violaceum
PYOCYANIN (light bluish) pigmented pus seen in cultures may be an indication for what organism?
Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
List the functions the Cell Envelope in bacteria. x6
Barrier
(osmotic protection & environment regulator)

Motility

Solute transport
Lipid biosynthesis
Electron transport
Electrochemical gradients / ATP synthesis
Protein secretions
Cell membrane components in Gram POSITIVE organisms?
Peptidoglycan (THICK layer)

Inner membrane
List the Cell envelope components for Gram NEGATIVE organisms.
Outer membrane (LPS & protein)

Periplasm layer
(w/ THIN layer of Peptidoglycan)

Membrane (inner)
List the 4 steps on gram staining.
1. Crystal Violet

2. Gram staining
(precipitates crystal violet)

3. Decolorizer

4. Safranin Red
What types of decolorizer can be used in gram staining?
Alcohol or Acetone
List the Cell envelope components for Gram NEGATIVE organisms.
Outer membrane (LPS & protein)

Periplasm layer
(w/ THIN layer of Peptidoglycan)

Membrane (inner)
In Gram POSITIVE cell envelopes, the functions of Teichoic & Lipoteichoic acids are? x3
1. Net Negative charge on cell wall

2. Serotyping

3. Sheds & elicits immune response
In Gram NEGATIVE cell envelopes, the functions of the Periplasmic space is? x2
May contain Virulence factors

Contains thin peptidoglycan layer
List the 4 steps on gram staining.
1. Crystal Violet

2. Gram staining
(precipitates crystal violet)

3. Decolorizer

4. Safranin Red
What types of decolorizer can be used in gram staining?
Alcohol or Acetone
Prokaryotic lipid, Phosphatidylethanolamine, is targeted by what antibiotic?
Polymyxins
In prokaryotes, what molecules diffuse with HIGH permeability?
Hydrophobic, UNcharged molecules

(followed by Small, uncharged Polar)
(followed by Large, uncharged Polar)
In prokaryotes, what molecules diffuse with LOW permeability?
Ions (charged molecules)
In Prokaryotic cell membrane transport, what is required in SIMPLE transport?
PMF only
In Prokaryotic cell membrane transport, what is required in GROUP transport?
Energy (ATP or PMF)
In Prokaryotic cell membrane transport, what is required in ABC system transport?

(any exceptions?)
Periplasmic binding proteins
&
ATP

(except in Gram POSITIVE, protein comes from cytoplasmic membrane)
Specialized secretion systems can do what with its proteins?
Inject proteins directly in to the host cell
What is clinically significant about the protein secretion systems?
Host antibodies do NOT have access to injected proteins.
The peptidoglycan layer has which type of activity?

- Pyogenic
- Pyrogenic
Pyrogenic
What gives peptidoglycans its rigidity?
Repeating structures

with

Crosslinks
Describe the properties of Peptidoglycan in terms of Layer Thickness.
Gram NEG --> 1 to 3 layers thick

Gram POS --> 10 times thicker
Describe the properties of Peptidoglycan in terms of mechanical properties.
More similar to Viscous Gel (than crystalline structures)

It can Stretch
What can diffuse across the Peptidoglycan?
Proteins < 50 kDa

DNA

Nutrients
What Peptidoglycan component(s) is never found in Eukaryotes?
NAM

DAP
DAP is found in what organisms?
ALL Gram NEGATIVE

Some Gram +
Transpeptidation reactions are inhibited by what antibiotics?
Beta Lactam Antibiotics
During Transpeptidation reactions, the Beta-Lactam ring will resemble?
Transition state of D-alanyl-D-alanine
During Transpeptidation reactions, PCN will bind to what proteins?
PBP (Penicillin Binding Proteins)
By binding to PBP, PCN will inhibit what enzymes? x2
Bacterial

Transpeptidases
&
Carboxypeptidases
In Gram - organisms, what are 2 important components of the LPS outer membrane?
Oligosaccaride O-side chain
(O Antigen)

Core
In Gram - organisms, what is the function of the core in LPS outer membrane?
Resistance to hydrophobic compounds
In Gram - organisms, what is the clinical significance for the Oligosaccharide side chain found in LPS outer membrane?
Loss of O-side chain by pathogens will reduce virulence
In Gram - organisms, what is the clinical significance for the core of the LPS outer membrane?
Basis for resistance to bile acids by enteric bacteria
In Gram - organisms, what is the clinical significance for the diffusion properties of the outer LPS membrane?
Large compounds such as Vancomycin can NOT pass thru pores in outer membrane
In Gram - organisms, what can strengthen the LPS intermolecular interactions?
Divalent MAGNESIUM

Divalent CALCIUM
In Gram - organisms, what can weaken the LPS intermolecular interactions?
EDTA
In Gram - organisms, Lipid A of the LPS contains only what?
Saturated Fatty Acid

(adds rigidity)
What is considered the toxic portion of the LPS, endotoxin?
Lipid A
In Gram NEG organisms, the Lipid A portion is inserted where?
Outer membrane
In Gram NEG organisms, the Lipid A portion is essential for?
Viability
The 3 components of LPS, endotoxin are?
O-specific polysaccharide

Core polysaccharide

Lipid A (outer)
Describe the polar properties for each of the LPS, endotoxin components.
HydroPHILIC, Negative charge

O-specific polysaccharide
&
Core polysaccharide

HydroPHOBIC

Lipid A (outer)
LPS activates what immune cells?
Activates B-cells
LPS stimulates what immune cells and what does this lead to?
Macrophages/Dendritic cells

Release of
- IL-1
- IL-6
- TNF-alpha
LPS would show what conditions based on labwork? x2
Leukopenia

Hypoglycemia (possibly)
LPS can enhance what pathway?
Glycolysis
LPS is fatal in what doses?
10 - 100 micrograms
Which is more potent for causing fatalities, LPS or PG?
LPS

(1000 x's more potent)
Septic / Endotoxin Shock can be caused by what alone?
LPS alone

(other bacterial components can also cause same symptoms)
Septic / Endotoxin Shock can cause what symptoms? x4
1. Flu-like
(fever, chills, malaise, confusion)

2. Heart rate increase

3. Respiratory rate increase

4. Hypotension to the extreme
Septic / Endotoxin Shock can lead to extreme hypotension because?
Induction of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha

produces
VASODILATION

via
NO & other mediators
Septic / Endotoxin Shock can lead to Multiorgan failure due to?
HypoPerfusion
Septic / Endotoxin Shock can lead to DIC (Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation) by activation of?
Coagulation pathway