Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the four fibers of the Spinothalamic tract.
1. Spinohypothalamic fibers
2. Spinoreticular fibers
3. Spinothalamic fibers
4. Spinotectal (or Spinomesencephalic) fibers
Where does the spinotectal (or spinomesencephalic) fibers go?
Superior Colliculus


Periaqueductal Gray (PAG)
What are the sensations conveyed by the spinothalamic tract.
1. Crude touch
2. Pain
3. Temperature
4. Sexual/Pressure (conducted bilaterally from pelvic region and includes bowel/bladder)
In the STT, what are the three nuclei regions where the axon collaterals, entering the dorsal horn, synapse with the projection neurons?
1. Posteromarginal Nucleus
2. Nucleus Propius
3. Substantia Gelatinosa
In the STT, for each segment, the projection axons decussate where? and form into what?
Ventral White Commissure

(Contralateral) Spinothalamic Tract
The neospinothalamic tract projects to what two nuclei in the thalamus?
1. VPL (ventral posterolateral)

2. PO (Posterior Nucleur Complex)
What does the VPL axons of the neospinothalamic tract pass through? and where does it end up?
Posterior limb of the Internal Capsule

Area SI and SII
Where does the PO axons of the neospinothalamic tract go to?
Area SII and adjacent insular areas.
What are the specific functions of the neospinothalamic tract?
Crude touch

Fast Pain
In terms of fast, well-localized pain, what is the function of VPL and PO of the neospinothalamic tract?
VPL (with Area SI) - localizes the fast pain

PO (with Areas SII) perceives it
The paleospinothalamic tract projects to what four nuclei in the thalamus?
1. Nonspecific (intralaminar) thalamic nuclei
2. Brainstem Reticular Formation
3. Tectum & Periaqueductal Gray (PAG)
4. Hypothalamus
What does the Ascending Reticular Activating System (ARAS) modulate?
Consciousness that mediates the affective nature of somatic pain

& slow pain
The RF (reticular formation) receives sensory input from what?
All Cranial Nerves

Spinothalamic Tract
What is the seat of consciousness?
Cerebral cortex
For the ARAS, input to the RF goes where, then to where?
Intralaminar Nuclei

Cerebral cortex
Lesions to the midbrain level causes what?
Lesions to the midpontines causes what?
Persistent wakefulness
Projections to the Tectum are involved in what physiological function?
Head and eye reflex
Projections to the PAG are involved in what physiological function?
Antinociceptive (pain inhibition)
The nerve fibers in the PAG project to where? then where does that project to?
1. Serotonergic (Raphe nuclei) and Noradrenergic nuclei of brainstem.

2. Dorsal horn (and mediates pain inhibition.
Excitation of what interneurons will inhibit pain transmission?
Enkephalinergic interneurons.
STT axons project directly to and synapse in what regions?
1. RF
2. Midbrain
3. Thalamus
4. Hypothalamus
Traumatic legions of peripheral nerves destroy what?
Both motor and sensory fibers of all types.
Lesions of dorsal roots destroy only what?
Sensory fibers
Extramedullary lesions of the dorsal roots are likely to produce what?
Pain with dermatomal distribution (radicular pain)
Peripheral neuropathy often results in what?
sensory losses with a glove and stocking distribution
Lesions of the DCML above the sensory decussation causes what?
Contralateral loss of epicritic sensation.
Lesions of the DCML below the sensory decussation causes what?
Ipsilateral loss of epicritic sensation.
What happens to the protopathic senses in DCML lesions.
They remain on the contralateral side.
Lesions of DCML affecting the lower body (f. gracilis) causes what? x3
Loss of epicritic sensation

Sensory ataxia & wide-based gait

Romberg's sign
Severe bilateral epicritic deficit suggests what? x3
1. Lesion in the dorsal funiculus

2. Lesion in the paracentral lobules

3. Tabes dorsalis - tertiary syphillis infection with degeneration of lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia.
Lesions of DCML affecting the upper body (f. cuneatus) causes what? x4
1. Loss of epicritic sensations
2. Ataxia
3. Asterognosis
4. Agraphesthesia
Lesions of STT causes what symptoms?
Lesions of the STT manifest symptoms on which side of the body?
Always contralateral
Besides a lesion of the STT, athermia and analgesia may indicate what symptom.
Anterior Cord Syndrome

Affects regions of anterior spinal artery
Lesion of the ventral white commissure results in what syndrome? What are the symptoms?
Central Cord Syndrome

Bilateral loss of pain and temp. slightly below the segmental level of the lesion.
What are the symptoms of Brown-Sequard Syndrome? x3
1. Ipsilateral loss of all sensation at the level of legion

2. Ipsilateral epicritic deficit below level of lesion

3. Contralateral protopathic deficit.
Thalamic syndrome symptoms.
1. Hemianasthesia
2. Sensory Ataxia
3. Thalamic Pain - slow burning pain elicited by touch (Dejerine-Roussy syndrome)

all contralateral
Unilateral lesion of both tracts in pons or above causes what?
Lesion in the Cerebral cortex leads to what symptom?
Hemianasthesia with emphasis on loss of epicritic sensation.
Segmental sensory loss with Pain and Parasthesia indicates a lesion where?
Spinal nerve or DRG lesion
Loss of ipsilatreral epicritic sensation, loss of contralateral protopathic, and motor loss indicates what?
Spinal cord hemisection
Loss of epicritic sensation with no protopathic deficit indicates what?
Legion of DC or ML
Bilateral epicritic defecit in legs indicate what? x3
Legion of:

Fasciculus gracilis
Paracentral lobules
Tabes dorsalis
Bilateral epicritic deficit in arms indicate what?
Medial lemniscus legion
Hemianasthesia indicates what? x5
1. Lesion of Medial lemniscus
2. Lesion of STT
3. Lesion of posterior limb of internal capsule
4. Lesion of Postcentral gyrus
5. Lesion of Ventral Posterior nucleus
Bilateral loss of pain and temperature with an upper and lower level indicate what?
Lesion of ventral white commissure
Bilateral loss of pain and temperature with an upper level as well as paresthesia/paralysis and bowel/bowel incontingencies indicate what?
Anterior spinal cord syndrome