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46 Cards in this Set

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What are the six stages of Sigmund Freud?
1. Oral
2. Anal
3. Urethral
4. Phallic
5. Latency
6. Genital
Oedipal desires:

- occur when
- what develops and why
Freud's phallic stage

Superego develops to gain control
Freud's 1st stage:

- time frame
- brief description
- aggression character x2
- successful resolution x2
- pathology
0-18 months

An infant's perceptions, expressions, and needs centered around lips, mouth, and tongue.

Biting and spitting

1. Capacity to give and receive
2. Ability to rely on others with a sense of trust

Extreme dependence on others
Frued's 2nd stage:

- time frame
- primary task
- focus character
- fantasies
- strive for what?
1 to 3 years old

Gaining control over bladder and anal sphincters

Shift from passive to active focus

Children have fantasies of bombings and explosions

Child strives for independence.
Anal Psychopathology

- arises from what dilemma


Freud's 4rd stage:

- time frame
- brief description
- identification with
- successful resolution
3-5 years old

Child discovers penis/clitoris, so they play around. This causes parents to say, "don't do that," leading to guild.

Develops identification with same-sex parent
(part of resolution)

Identity/curiosity as a sexual person, with confidence, without embarrassment
What is the major flaw of Freud's Phallic stage theory?
Children often tend to prefer parent who is most attentive and responsive
Freud's 5th stage:

- time frame
- precedes what
- what is latent?
- what happens at this stage
- successful resolution x2
6-12 years old


Sexual drives sublimated

Time is spent (in clubs or with same genders) to consolidate identity as that gender in that social/cultural context

Ego maturation and skill building
An excess of inner control during latency can lead to what? and why?
Premature closure of personality development

with predominant obsessive character traits

Too much influence of super ego.
Freud's 6th stage:

- time frame
- brief description
- what is going on physically?
- successful resolution?
Puberty to young adulthood

Peer group identification facilitates further separation from parents


Integration of adult roles for new adaptation
Erickson's Autonomy vs. Shame

- what does that mean
- which Freud stage
Child's strive for independence

Anal stage
Erickson's "Identity Diffusion"

- means what
- what Freud stage
Failure to resolve adolescent issues

Genital Stage
What are the stages of Jean Piaget's Cognitive Development?
Sensorimotor Stage

Preoperational Thought

Concrete Operations

Formal Operations
Sensorimotor Stage:

- Birth to 2 months
- 2nd to 9th months
- 9th to 1 year
- 12th to 18th months
- 18th month to 2 years
ACCOMMODATION with external world using inborn motor and sensory reflexes.

Coordinate 5 senses and activities of own body (e.g. - thumb sucking)

Peekaboo. Vague notion objects exist apart from itself.

Walking & anticipates consequence

Symbolization of object with visual image or word (e.g. - "ball")
Object Permanence

- definitions
- beginning of what?
- what stage
Child differentiates self from external world, realizing objects have an existence independent of child's involvement with them.


Piaget Sensorimotor Stage
Preoperational thought

- Time frame
- Type of thinking
- Type of logic
- Type of association
2 to 7 years

Intuitive without reason

Not linked by any logic
(drops glass, no idea that glass breaking is due to drop)

No ability to sense sameness
(e.g. - doll in carriage, crib, or in chair all different objects)
Represent things in terms of their function.

- which stage
- example
Preoperational thought

bike as "to ride"
hole as "to dig"
Development of two word utterances of noun with verb.

- which stage
Preoperational thought
T/F - During Preoperational Thought, children have a rudimentary understanding of good vs. bad, as well as moral dilemmas.
True and False

Children DO have a rudimentary understanding of good vs. bad.

They can not deal with moral dilemmas.

If asked who is more guilty, one who breaks 1 dish or 10 dishes, they will say latter, based on the fact 10 is more than 1.
Piaget's stage when a child is egocentric.
Preoperational thought
Phenomenalistic Causality

- define
- what stage
Events that occur together are thought to cause on another.

e.g. - thunder causes lightening

Piaget's Preoperational Thought
Animistic thinking

- define
- what stage
Giving lifelike psychological attributes (feelings and intentions) to physical events and objects.

Piaget's Preoperational Thought
Semiotic function

- define
- what stage
Understands drawing a picture is fun and signifies something else in the real world.

Piaget's Preoperational thought
Concrete Operations

- Time Frame
- Character
7 - 11 years

Limited logic to order and group objects

- define
- what stage
Logical conclusion based on two premises

Piaget's Concrete Operations

- define
- what stage
Concept whereby one thing can change into another form/state than back again.

(e.g. - ice/water/steam)

Piaget's Concrete Operations

- example
- what stage
10 ounces of fluid in short wide vessel is poured into tall thin glass. the amount of fluid is same.

Piaget's Concrete Operation
What stage does the emergence of a moral sense, and a code of values arise in children?

Can they follow these rules at this stage?
Piaget's Concrete Operation

Formal Operations:

- time frame
- general characters x5
11 y.o. to end of adolescence

Abstract (50%)


Deductive Reasoning
What did Carol Gilligan, a Harvard scholar, state in her book, In A Different Voice?
Boys and girls arrive at different strategies in moral reasoning.

Boys tend to focus on legal imperatives and consequences

Girls endorse acts based on emotional and interpersonal considerations.
During what Piaget stage do children believe they are invincible and grandiose, possibly accomplishing things and events with thought alone?
Formal Operation
According to Piaget, hospitalized children during 0 to 2 years old suffer from what and why?

What should be done?
Suffer from Separation Anxiety

b/c they have not achieved object permanence

Mothers should stay overnight with them
For children at the preoperational stage, how would you describe medical situations and procedures? and why?
Role playing

b/c they don't understand cause and effect.

They may believe that physical illness may be due to bad thoughts or deeds.
According to Piaget, adults under stress will do what?
Regress cognitively

possibly animistic, preoperational, egocentric
Eriksonian stages are based upon what principle?
Epigenetic principle
What are the stages of Erikson's?
1. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferior
5. Identity vs. Role Diffusion
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
8. Integrity vs. Despair
Erikson's Trust vs. Mistrust

- stage?
- time period?
- brief description?

Birth to 1 year old

Interaction of mother tending to child will satisfy trust.
Oral crisis

- stage?
- brief description
Erikson's Trust vs. Mistrust

Baby starts teething, causing nipple withdrawal.
Autonomy vs. Shame

- stage?
- time period?
- brief description?
- Corresponds to what other stage?

1 to 3 years old

Child develops autonomy via early walking, talking, and separation from others ("I," "me," and ect.)

Freud's Anal stage
Erikson's Initiative vs. Guilty

- stage?
- time period?
- brief description?
- corresponds to what other stage?

3 to 5 years old

Normal curiosity leads to exhibition and self touching

Phallic stage
Sibling rivalry occurs when?
Erikson's Initiative vs. Guilt stage.
Industry vs. Inferiority

- stage?
- time period?
- brief description?
- corresponds to what other stage
- corresponds to what other stage?

6 to 11 years old

Child is busy building, creating, accomplishing

Freud's latency period
Identity vs. Role Diffusion

- stage?
- time period?
- brief description?

11 y.o. to end of adolescence

Development of ego identity.
Preoccupied with hero worship, appearance, and ideologies.
Intimacy vs. Isolation

- stage?
- time period?
- brief description?
- intimacy character?
- isolation character

21 y.o. to 40 y.o.

Developmental tasks of love and work.

Self abandonment for friendship and lifelong attachments....productive meaningful work

Paranoia (scizoid fears intimacy)
Generativity vs. Stagnation

- stage?
- time period?
- brief description?
- generativitity character
- stagnation character
- stagnation can lead to what?

45 y.o. to 60 y.o.

Raising and guiding children.

Provide love and nurture

Self absorption, isolation, and failed expectation

Depression and substance abuse
Integrity vs. Despair

- stage?
- time period?
- brief description?
- Integrity character
- Despair character
- despair can lead to what?


Dependent on a sense of life's worth and productiveness

Accepting one's place in life cycle (ready to retire)

Belief that life was not rewarding nor meaningful. Fear of death.

Suicide - highest for 65+