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68 Cards in this Set

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List the Neuronal reaction of injury for General (nonspecific) changes. x6
1. Simple Chromatolysis
2. Central (axonal) Chromatolysis
3. Acute neuronal injury
4. Neuronal atrophy and degeneration
5. Pigmentary degeneration
6. Ferrugination
Simple Chromatolysis
- Type of change
- Affects what cells
- Description
General

Neurons

Swollen
Central nucleus
Central (Axonal) Chromatolysis
- Type of change
- Affects what cells
- Description
General

Neurons

Swolllen
Eccentric nucleus
Powdered nissl bodies
Acute Neuronal Injury
- Type of change
- Affects what cells
- Description
General

Neurons

Eosinophilic cytoplasm
Dark Red nucleus (red dead neurons)
Neuronal Atrophy and Degeneration
- Type of change
- Affects what cells
- Description
General

Neurons

Smaller
Flat
Deformed nucleus
Pigmentary Degeneration
- Type of change
- Affects what cells
- Description
General

Neurons

Large amounts of lipofuscin
Ferrugination
- Type of change
- Affects what cells
- Description
General

Neuron

Mineral encrustation of cells and processes
Ischemic Necrosis is associated with what type of change?
Acute Neuronal Injury
List the Neuronal reaction of injury for Semi-specific changes. x4
1. Large Irregular neurons
2. Intraneuronal storage
3. Neurofibrillary degeneration
4. Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies
Large Irregular Neurons
- Type of change
- Affects what cells
- Description
Semi-specific

Neurons

Large and Irregular
Tuberous sclerosis is associated with what type of change?
Large irregular Neurons
Intraneuronal storage
- Type of change
- Affects what cells
- Description
Semi-specific

Neurons

Large, bulbous neuron
Abnormally large amounts of normal and abnormal substances
Eccentrically located nucleus
Neurofibillary Degeneration (tangles)
- Type of change
- Affects what cells
- Description
Semi-specific

Neurons

Paired helical neurofillament protein
Alzheimers is associated with what type of change? x2
Neurofibillary degeneration (tangles)

Granulovacuolar bodies
List all the cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. x5
1. Granulovacuolar bodies
2. Lewy bodies
3. Lafora bodies
4. Pick bodies
5. Negri bodies
Lewy bodies are associated with what diseases?
Parkinson's

Lewy Body Dementia
Pick bodies are associated with what diseases?
Pick's Disease
Lafora bodies are associated with what diseases?
Myoclonic epilepsy
Negri bodies are associated with what diseases?
Rabies
List dendrite reactions to injury. x3
1. Stellate bodies
2. Arborization Reduction
3. Severely distorted orientation of dendritic tree
List axonal reactions to injury. x4
1. Injury
2. Wallerian (secondary) degeneration
3. Accumulation of 10 nm filaments
4. Spheroids
Describe Axonal injury
Irregular swelling

Fragmentation
Describe Wallerian (Secondary) degeneration.
Distal axon break up
Describe Spheroids
Rounded or oval, pink

non-nucleated

smooth or granular masses

of axoplasm.
In NORMAL brain, what are the functions of astrocytes? x3
1. Physical & BCHM support

2. Electrical insulation

3. Estabilshment of Blood Brain Barrier
In DAMAGED brain, what are the function of astrocytes?
Acts just like fibroblasts of PNS except lays down glial fibers rather than collagen.
Describe the general process that occurs when astrocytes are injured.
They slowly react (4-5 days)

Astrocytes become enlarged (gemistocytes)

with enlarged nucleus (and nucleolus)

and heavier processes

Increase in number

Revert back to normal sized fibrillary astrocytes
Define gliosis. List the two types of gliosis.
Proliferation of astrocytes in response to injury.

Isomorphic gliosis
Anisomorphic gliosis
Define gemistocytes
Hypertrophic astrocytes with

enlarged nucleus

nucleolus

heavy processes
Isomorphic gliosis:
- when does it happen
- what happens
When specific tracts become damaged

Gliosis conform to pattern of tract
Anisomorphic gliosis:
- when does it happen
- what happens
When gross tissue damage occurs

Gliosis is random
Define clasmatodendrosis
Fragmentation and degeneration of the astrocytic processes

Body swells and becomes granular
What happens with severe damage leading to astrocyte death?
Fibroblasts form granulation tissue

and form collagenous scars
Alzheimer type I astrocytes
- describe
- associated with?
Pale nucleus
Enlarged nucleus
Round nucleus
Visible cytoplasm

Liver disease
Alzheimer type II astrocytes
- describe
- associated with?
Pale nucleus
Enlarged nucleus
Rounded nucleus
Invisible cytoplasm

Liver disease
Rosenthal fibers
- found in what cell
- found in which part of that cell
- found when
- looks like?
Astrocytes

Processes of astrocytes

ProLONGed progressive gliosis

Eosinophilic, eLONGated tapering or globular bodies
Corpora Amylacea
- found in what cell
- found in which part of that cell
- found when
- looks like?
astrocytes

astrocyte processes

gliosis

spherical basophilic bodies
What is the function of oligodendrocytes?
Production and maintenance of CNS myelin
What do oligodendrocytes look like when injured?
Acute swelling with perinuclear halo

"Fried Egg"
When injured, describe the general appearance of CNS myelin.
Swollen and vacuolated

Becomes short segments of ellipsoids
Describe the difference between primary and secondary demyelination.
Primary - attack on myelin

Secondary - loss of axon
Describe the difference between central and peripheral myelin during injury.
Central does not usually regenerate, but peripheral usually does
Define ependymal granulation.
Injury to ependymal cells leads to

ependymal cell loss

gap fills with ependymal granulation (astrocytes and processes)
Injury to ependymal cells in aqueduct of Sylvius results in what?
Gliosis of aqueduct

Hydrocephalus
What is the origin of microglia?
Mesoderm
Describe the reaction of microglia to injury.
Processes retract

Proliferation

Elongation of nucleus

Mobilization to area of injury

Monocytes join in

Accumulation of cytoplasm in both cells

Becomes macrophages and histiocytes

Scavenge up debris
Define satelitosis
Increase in perineuronal microglial cells due to injury
Define Neuronophagia
Phagocytosis of irreversibly injured neurons
Rod cells
- what are they?
- when do they occur?
Elongated microglial cells

Slow and/or incomplete CNS injury
Glial nodules
- AKA
- characteristic of what?
Lamellar cells

Viral infection
Protozoal infection
Rickettsial infection
Increased intracranial pressure is produced by what type of lesions?
Space occupying lesions
Increased intracranial pressure has what level of pressure?
>200 mm H20

while lying down
Symptoms of increased intracranial pressure.
HA

N/V

mental slowness

+/- focal signs

+/- papilledema
Gross changes in increased intracranial pressure. x2
Flattening of gyri

+/- compressed or distorted ventricles
List herniations associated with increased intracranial pressure. x3
1. Subfalcine

2. Uncal (uncinate transtentorial)

3. Cerebellar tonsillar
List the lymphatics of brain.
There is none
Types of cerebral edema
1. Interstitial edema

2. Vasogenic edema

3. Cytotoxic edema
Describe subfalcine herniation.
Cingulate gyrus herniation

(compresses vessels)
Uncal herniation
- structural affects x4
- include symptoms for each
Stretched 3rd nerve
- dilated pupil

Compression of contralateral cerebral peduncle
- paralysis

Compression of PCA
- infarct

Downward displacement of midbrain
- Duret hemorrhages
- dilated pupils
- change in respiration
- change in consciousness
Cerebellar tonsillar herniation goes into which foramen? Compresses what?
Foramen Magnum

Respiratory center
Interstitial edema
- seen during?
- how occurs?
Non-communicating hydrocephalus

Excess fluid crosses ependymal lining
Vasogenic edema
- how occurs?
- structural change? x2
- histology x2
Accumulation of edema fluid in EXTRACELLULAR space

Swollen and soft white matter
with gyral flattening

Microvacuolation
Separation of myelin
Cytotoxic edema
- how occurs?
- affect on homeostasis?
Excess of INTRACELLULAR fluid

Can not maintain
CSF
- produced by?
- resorbed by?
Choroid plexus

arachnoid villi
Describe criteria for non-communicating hydrocephalus.
Blockage within the brain
Describe criteria for communicating hydrocephalus
Blockage within subarachnoid space

Malfunction of arachnoid villi
Symptoms of slow and insiduous hydrocephalus seen in adults.
Dementia

Incontinence

Gait disturbance
Define Hydrocephalus ex vacuo.
Compensatory enlargement of the ventricles with an increase in CSF volume

Because of brain loss