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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sleep Score is based on what three features?
Eye movements
What are the components of Sleep Stages?
Non REM (1,2,3, and 4)

Describe the normal sleep time for young adults.
Stage 1: 5%
Stage 2: 45% to 50%

SWS: 20% to 25%

REM: 20% to 25%
What is SWS?
Slow Wave Sleep

AKA - Delta sleep

Combines Non REM stage 3 & 4
Synchronization of patterns on EEG depends on what?
Interaction between cortex and thalamus.
"Wake" brains would exhibit what characters on EEG?
- frequency
- amplitude
- synchronization
HIGH frequency
LOW amplitude

(b/c different parts of brain are working on different things such as hearing, seeing, etc.)
Non-REM sleep brains would exhibit what characters on EEG?
- frequency
- amplitude
- synchronization
LOW frequency
HIGH amplitude

REM sleep brains would exhibit what characters on EEG?
- frequency
- amplitude
- synchronization
HIGH frequency
LOW amplitude

Greater desynchronization
EEG represents what? measured on what?
Collective behavior of millions of cortical neurons

Measured on the scalp
The brainstem is responsible for what in sleep?
Controls the switch for REM and non-REM sleep.

Ascending cortical activation
The hypothalamus is responsible for what in sleep?
Controls the sleep-wake switch.
The Suprachiasmatic nucleus is responsible for what?
Controls the circadian clock
The thalamus is responsible for what in sleep?
Responsible for

cortical activation for stage 2,

EEG synchronization,


generation of sleep spindles
What are the NT associated with "WAKE" and describe the systems involved.
Histamine, NE, Dopamine, Serotonin

(in Basal forebrain projecting to cortex; in Pons projecting to thalamus)
What are the main categories of sleep as outlined by the ICSD?
1. Circadian rhythm sleep disorder
2. Hypersomnia
(NOT DUE to sleep related breathing disorder)
3. Insomnia
4. Parasomnia
5. Sleep related breathing disorder

(don't need to know the following)

6. Isolated symptoms
7. Sleep related movement disorder
8. Other sleeping disorder
Psychophysiological Insomnia
- general definition
Disorder of somatized tension and learned sleep preventing associations.
Psychophysiological insomnia
- onset
- gender
- often accompanies what?
- acute or chronic?
20s to 30s
Associated with EtOH or pills

Can become chronic if not fixed during acute stages
Pyschophysiological insomnia
- provoked by?
- duration?
Acute emotional arousal/conflict

Transient type lasts few weeks following termination of precipitating event.
Psychophysiological insomnia
- characteristic symptoms
Any combo of:

difficulty falling asleep
intermittent awakenings
premature morning arousal
Primary Sequence of Sleep Apnea
1. Sleep
2. Apnea
3. Low O2, high CO2, low pH
4. Arousal from sleep
5. Resumption of airflow
6. Return to sleep
Clinical features of sleep apneas x 9
1. Hypertension
2. Snoring, especially loud with pauses
3. Cardiorespiratory failure
4. Abnormal motor activity in sleep
5. Personality/Intellectual changes
6. Nocturnal enuresis
7. Excessive daytime sleeping
8. AM headaches
9. Sexual impotence
Describe the cardiorespiratory failure associated with apneas.
Congestive Heart Failure
Dependent edema
Pulmonary HTN
What are some characters of REM?
1. "Active" EEG
2. Erection / vaginal lubrication
3. "Hearing"
4. EOMs
5. Atonia
6. Dreaming
Define cataplexy
Inappropriate intrusion of sleep atonia into AWAKEFULNESS, usually precipitated by a emotionally laden event.
Define Sleep Paralysis
Persistence of REM sleep atonia into wakefulness, resulting in wakeful mentation with somatic paralysis (spares eyes +/- respiration)
Define Hypnagogic
Hallucinations occuring at sleep onset
Define Hypnopompic
Hallucinations occuring on awakening
Describe Narcoleptic symptoms.
EDS (100%)

Cataplexy (70%)

Sleep paralysis (30%)

Hypnagagic hallucinations (25%)
What is the new finding for narcolepsy
Hypocretin 1 NT dysfunction in the CSF has shown to be associated with narcolepsy.
What are the clinical manifestations of idiopathic hypersomnia?
1. Relentless excessive sleeping
2. Prolonged, non-fragmented sleep
3. Sleep drunkeness upon awakening
4. Prolonged daytime naps
Describe obtaining the diagnosis for idiopathic hypersomnia.
1. History of pervasive, relentless sleep.
2. Hypersomnia by MSLT
3. REM normal by PSG nor MSLT
4. Unremarkable PSG
5. Nothing accounts for EDS