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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Where does the majority of auditory input end up?

Contralateral or Ipsilateral?
Contralateral (80%)
The apical tip of the cochlea is for what type of tones?
Low tones
The base of the cochlea is for what type of tones?
High tones
Where do you first discern sound?
Primary auditory cortex
What type of cell bodies are in the spinal ganglia?
Bipolar
Describe the auditory DIRECT pathway (aka - simple pathway)
Hair Cells
Spinal Ganglion
Dorsal Cochlear nucleus (synapse)

Crosses over the
Dorsal Auditory Stria

Lateral Lemniscus
Inferior Colliculus nucleus (synapse)
Medial Geniculate Body (synapse)

Goes underneath Lentiform nucleus,
(thus sublentiform radiation)

Transverse Temporal Gyri of Hescl (synapse)
Describe the auditory INDIRECT pathway.
Hair cells
Spinal Ganglion
Ventral Cochlear nucleus (synapse)

Crossover via Trapezoid body
(aka - inferior + intermediate acoustic striae)

Superior Olivary nucleus (synapse)

(goes contralateral or ipsilateral)

Lateral Lemniscus
Inferior Colliculus nucleus (synapse)
Medial Geniculate Body (synapse)
Transverse Temporal Gyri of Hescl (synapse)
Continuation of the lateral lemniscus occurs where?
Brachium of the Inferior Colliculus
Sympathetic reflex responses to noise occur via what pathway and nucleus?
Tectospinal pathway

Superior Colliculus

Reticular Formation (Brainstem)
The pathway for the sublenticular portion of the Internal canal which carries info to the Hescl is called what?
Geniculocortical tract.
In the auditory pathways, what is unique about the MGB?
Only nucleus of the auditory pathway in which you don't have communication from one side to the other.
Describe the crossovers for the DIRECT auditory pathway.
Occurs from the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus to the Inferior Colliculus nucleus on the Lateral Lemniscus tract

via Dorsal Auditory Striae
Describe the crossovers for the INDIRECT auditory pathway.
Occurs from the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus to the Superior Olivary Nucleus

via Trapezoid Body Striae

May also crossover at....

From Superior Olivary Nucleus to Inferior colliculus

via Lateral Lemniscus
Describe the Weber test.
- What makes it positive/negative on which side?
Place active tuning fork on forehead.

The side with greater hearing is infected side b/c brain will focus on bone conduction on the ear that has air conduction problems.
Describe the Rinnes test.
- What makes it positive/negative on which side?
Put active tuning fork on mastoid, then besides ear.

If AC > BC, then normal ear.

If BC > AC, then the ear on that side is infected.
In terms of auditory, lesions of the primary afferent fibers would cause what?
Complete deafness in that side of ear.
Lesions of the Ventral or Dorsal Cochlear nucleus would cause what?
Total deafness in that side of ear.
Lesions to the lateral lemniscus tract would cause what?
70% to 85% hearing loss on that ear.

Not complete b/c of ipsilateral and contralateral properties.
When you hear from your right ear, which part of the cortex are you using to "hear?"
Left side (majority)
How does hair cells get promote excitation?
Fluid moves Stereocilia towards Kinocilium
How does hair cells promote inhibition?
Fluid moves Kinocilium towards Stereocilia.
Actions of the vestibular system can be described how?
Subconscious reflex
Components of the vestibular nucleus complex.
Pairs of:

- Superior vestibular nu.
- Lateral vestibular nu.
- Inferior vestibular nu.
- Medial vestibular nu.
The vestibular system is intimately associated with what brain part?
Flocculonodular lobe of cerebellum
Afferents from hair cells go to where in the vestibular system?
Each component of the vestibule system

AND

Cerebellum
Describe the ascending pathway of the vestibular system from the vestibular nu. and what is its purpose?
From superior and middle vestibular nu.

Ascends bilaterally through the MLF contralaterally to the Lateral Gaze Center.
Describe the descending pathway of the vestibular system from the LATERAL vestibular nu. and what is its purpose?
Will stay on the ipsilateral side along the

lateral vestibulospinal tract

along the ventral horn of the spinal cord.

Will affect lower motor neurons associated with

ANTI-GRAVITY
Describe the descending pathway of the vestibular system from the MEDIAL vestibular nu. and what is its purpose?
Will travel bilaterally along the

medial vestibulospinal tract

along the ventral horn of the spinal cord.

Will affect lower motor neurons associated with

ANTI-GRAVITY
When you turn your head left, describe the EXCITATION process on the oculomotor nu. and the lateral gaze center.
Fluid of LEFT semicircular duct lags behind and goes toward the crista ampullaris.

Ascending pathway (via Sup. and Medial ventricular nu.) will cross over to contralateral Lateral Gaze Center and Oculomotor nu.

via MLF

This will excite eye to opposite direction of head turn.
Describe the physiological process and result of putting cold water in someone's LEFT ear.
Will change density of the air,

causes fluid in the semicircular ducts to move DOWNWARD

Will cause right eye nystagmus
Describe the physiological process and result of putting warm water in someone's LEFT ear.
Will change density of the air,

causes fluid in the semicircular ducts to move UPWARD

Will cause LEFT eye nystagmus