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64 Cards in this Set

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Limbic system function
Instinctive behavioral mechanisms and emotions directed towards survival
On which side of the limbic system is emotion expressed more intensely?
Left
Which hemisphere expresses emotion more intensely?
Right
List the general clinical disorders associated with the Limbic system.
Substance abuse
Psychosis
Anxiety Disorder
Mood Disorder
Memory Disorder
Describe the pathway of the Papez circuit.
Entorhinal Area
Hippocampus
Fornix
Mammillary body

(also Ant. Nucleus of Thalamus and Septal)

Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus
Cingulate gyrus
Parahippocampus
What is the function of the Papez circuit?
Focuses emotion
Intensifies emotion
Mediates emotion
The Papez circuit is a substrate for what?
Minor Depression
Anxiety
Stress
Suffering
Most anxiety disorders and minor depressions are treated with mild tranquilizers that do what?
Potentiate GABA
What surgery is known to decrease anxiety and suffering?
Cingulotomy

Bilateral section of cingulum
List the limbic system pathways.
Medial Forebrain bundle
Ventral Amygdalofugal
Papez circuit of emotion
Striae Medullaris thalami
Striae Terminalis
What is the main input for the Papez circuit and how does it get there?
Olfactory

Olfactory bulb to
Amygdala to
Entorhinal area
Describe the stria medullaris thalami pathway.
Olfactory bulb
Septal nucleus
Habenula
Reticular Formation (feeding center)
What pathway does the feeding center use and what is the physiological response to activation?
Striae Medullaris Thalami

Salivation
Swallowing
Secretion of stomach acid
What are the types of reactions illicited by the Papez circuit (give examples of each), and what mediates them?
Catabolic (fight or flight)
Anabolic (Eating, Drinking, Sex)

Hypothalamus and Frontal lobe
What are the four types of systems for memory?
Reflex
Procedural
Associative
Declarative
What are the two forms of Reflex learning?
Habitual - reduced response to repetitive stimulus

Sensitization - increased response to repetitive stimulus
Procedural memory occurs in what part of brain?
Cerebellum
Associative memory occurs in what part of brain?
Amygdala
Declarative memory occurs in what part of brain?
Hippocampus
Describe what happens in the HABITUATION memory reflex.
Repetitive stimulus leads to

Inactivation of CALCIUM channels, thus

Less NT is released

No change in the sensitivity of postsynaptic neurons.
Describe what happens in the SENSITIZATION memory reflex.
Repetitive stimulus result in

inactivation of POTASSIUM channels, thus

More NT is released

No change in the sensitivity of postsynaptic neurons.
The hippocampus uses what two mechanisms for memory processing?
LTP (Long Term Potentiation)

LTD (Long Term Depression)
Describe the post-synaptic changes that occur with Declarative memory processing in the hippocampus.
There will be changes in the postsynaptic
LTP enhances synaptic transmission via what receptors?
NMDA
Describe how LTP works.
A calcium activated, SECONDARY messenger,

causes release of Nitric Oxide (from postsynaptic cell)

which will diffuse to presynaptic terminals,

causing enhanced NT release.
LTP results in what synthesis?
New protein
cAMP regulatory proteins do what?
Activate genes to initiate growth of new synaptic connections.
What are the functions of the hippocampus? x2
1. Role in Papez circuit of emotion

2. Process short term memory to long term memory.
The Right hemisphere of the hippocampus processes what type of data?
Visual Spatial data
The Left hemisphere of the hippocampus processes what type of data?
Verbal data
Trigger cells for retrieval of long term memory are localized where?
Lateral temporal lobe
Anterograde Amnesia is due to lesions where?
Temporal lobe (hippocampus)
Retrograde Amnesia is due to lesions where?
Adjacent temporal lobe areas
What is unique about the dentate gyrus?
Has capacity for neurogenesis
Describe how LTP works.
A calcium activated, SECONDARY messenger,

causes release of Nitric Oxide (from postsynaptic cell)

which will diffuse to presynaptic terminals,

causing enhanced NT release.
LTP results in what synthesis?
New protein
cAMP regulatory proteins do what?
Activate genes to initiate growth of new synaptic connections.
What are the functions of the hippocampus? x2
1. Role in Papez circuit of emotion

2. Process short term memory to long term memory.
The Right hemisphere of the hippocampus processes what type of data?
Visual Spatial data
The Left hemisphere of the hippocampus processes what type of data?
Verbal data
Trigger cells for retrieval of long term memory are localized where?
Lateral temporal lobe
Anterograde Amnesia is due to lesions where?
Temporal lobe (hippocampus)
Retrograde Amnesia is due to lesions where?
Adjacent temporal lobe areas
What is unique about the dentate gyrus?
Has capacity for neurogenesis
What are the symptoms of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?
Anterograde amnesia (Korsakoff)

Confusion (Korsakoff)

Ophthalmoplegia (Wernicke)

Nystagmus (Wernicke)

Ataxia (Wernicke)
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome would show lesions where?
Mamillary bodies (Korsakoff)

DM thalamic nu. (Korsakoff)

Cerebellum (Wernicke)

Occulomotor (Wernicke)

Vestibular nu. (Wernicke)

Abducens (Wernicke)
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is induced by what?
Alcohol abuse

Thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency
What is the etiology of Alzheimer's Dementia?
Loss of cholinergic input from Nucleus Basilis of Meynert in Ventral Pallidum.

Entorhinal area affected prior to hippocampus
What are the symptoms of Alzheimer's Dementia?
Anterograde amnesia

Dementia (75% of dementia's)
Describe the pathology of Alzheimer's dementia.
Beta Amyloid plaques

Neurofibrillary tangles
Describe etiology of Temporal lobe epilepsy.
Recurrent seizure disorder preceded by sensory hallucinations

(often olfactory, initiated in Uncus - "uncinate fits")
What are the symptoms of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy?
Anterograde amnesia

Automatsim

Preservations
What are the pathways involving the Amygdala?
Ventral Amygdalofugal pathway

Stria Terminalis
Describe the Ventral Amygdafugal pathway.
Starts from the Amygdala

Goes to both:
- entorhinal
- hypothalamus

If hypothalamus, will go to DM, then frontal lobe for decision making.
Describe the Stria Terminalis pathway
Starts from the Amygdala

Goes to both:
- entorhinal
- hypothalamus

If hypothalamus, then will follow the ventricle system to get there.

Then, will go to DM, then frontal lobe for decision making.
The amygdala is associated with type of learning?
Associative

Subconscious
What is the function of the Amygdala?
Alerts and directs attention to the frontal lobe in behavioral response to instincts and associative learning (especially related to fear and aggression)
Which side of the amygdala develops better in males, and which connections will this enhance?
Right side

Connection with motor areas
Which side of the amygdala develops better in females, and which connections will this enhance?
Left side

Connection with limbic areas
Which pathway is associated with the Rage Reaction (not the sham rage reaction)?
Ventral Amygdafugal pathway
Describe the difference between hypothalamus mediated "sham" rage and amygdala mediated rage
Sham rage is instant ON and OFF

Rage response (via ventral amygdafugal pathway) is slow to build and slow to dissipate.
Lesions to the amygdala would manifest what symptoms?
Placidity - loss of self protective response (e.g. - fear, rage, anger)

Loss of Associative learning

Pyschic blindness
Kluver-Bucy syndrome is caused by what?
Ablation of anterior temporal lobe (including amygdala and hippocampus)
What are the symptoms of Kluver-Bucy syndrome?
Psychic blindness
Placidity
Anterograde amnesia
Deviant or hypersexual behavior