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38 Cards in this Set

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What is the most common type of malignant bone tumor?
Metastatic bone tumor
What is the most common tumor that can metastases on to bone?
Carcinoma
What is the most common BENIGN bone tumor?
Osteochondroma
Osteochondroma:

- what is it?
Cartilage capped outgrowth attached to underlying skeleton.
Osteochondroma:

- AKA
- population most affected
- Location
Exostosis

Males under 20

Metaphysis of long bone
(40% in knee)
Rarely, osteochondroma will give rise to what?

What will increase the risk for this?
Chondrosarcoma

Osteochondromatosis
(Multiple Hereditary Exocytosis)
Multiple Hereditary Exocytosis:

- AKA
- inheritance pattern
- chromosome
Osteochondromatosis

AD

Chromosome 8, 11, 19
What is chondroma?
Benign tumor of hyaline cartilage
Locations of chondroma. x4

Include names of chondroma that is seen there.
Within bone
(enchondroma / intramedullary chondroma)

On surface
(periosteal / juxtacortical chondroma)

Soft tissue
(soft tissue chondroma)

Enchondromatosis
(as seen in Ollier's)
Chondromas are most often found where on the bone?
Within the bone
Enchondroma:

- Age distribution
- Gender distribution
10 - 30 yrs old

1:1 (M:F)
Enchondroma:

- Location
- Cytologically similar to what?
Medulla of Metaphysis & Diaphysis

Chondrosarcoma
What would enchondroma manifest on a X-ray film?
O-ring sign

(lytic, expansile oval lesions with thin sclerotic rim)
Ollier Disease:

- what is it?
- location
- symmetry
Syndrome of multiple enchondromas (enchondromatosis)

Metaphysis

Unilateral
Maffucci Syndrome:

- what is it?
- prevalence/incidence
- Chance of malignant transformation
Enchondromotosis with soft tissue hemangiomas

Rare

High (40%)
Chondroblastoma:

- what is it?
- population most affected
- location
Benign chondroid tumor

Male teenagers

Epiphysis
Chondroblastoma:

- X-ray would show what?
Well circumscribed tumor

with spotty calcifications
Condroblastoma:

- histological cells
- histological sign
Mixture of mononuclear (chondroblast) cells and Giant cells

Chicken wire calcifications
Chondrosarcoma:

- what is it?
- location
Malignant neoplasm with a BROAD spectrum of histological and clinical findings

Metaphysis and Diaphysis
What do the tumor cells in chondrosarcomas form?
Cartilage, but NOT osteoid
Chondrosarcoma types. x3
Dedifferentiated

Clear cell

Mesenchymal
Chondrosarcoma is graded based on what? x2
Cellularity

Nuclear changes

Biologic behavior
Compare and contrast between enchondroma and chondrosarcoma?
Enchondroma looks like GRADE I Chondrosarcoma

Chondrosarcoma invades cortex, while enchondroma does NOT.
Before a diagnosis of chondrosarcoma is made, what must be identified?
The tumor permeating through the cortex into soft tissue.
Osteoid Osteoma

- what is it
- location
- size
Neoplastic proliferation of the
osteoid
and
fibrous tissue

Medulla and cortex of Metaphysis of long bones

Less than 1.5 cm or 2.0 cm
Osteoid Osteoma

- danger?
- presentation
- radiology
Benign

Night pain relieved by ASA

Well circumscribed with a NIDUS
What is the difference between Osteoid Osteoma and Osteoblastoma? x3
Unresponsive to ASA

Spine involvement

Larger ( over 2 cm )
Osteoma:

- Location
- Dangers?
- Presentation
Flat bones of skull + facial bones

Benign

Asymptomatic
Bony lesions of what bone tumor will precede the diagnosis of GARDNER'S DISEASE?
Osteoma
What is the most common primary malignant tumor of the bone?
Osteosarcoma
Osteosarcoma:

- Location
- Incidence
- Associated with what cells?
Metaphysis of long bone

2 peaks:
(10-25 and after 40)

Giant cells
Osteosarcoma likes to metastasize where?
lungs
Imaging of Osteosarcoma would show what?
Codman's triangle
Giant cell tumor:

- what is it?
- AKA
- Age distribution
- Location
Locally aggressive neoplasm

Osteoclastoma

20-40

Mainly in Epiphyseal, but can be at metaphyseal.
What is the prognosis of Giant Cell tumors?
Benign, but potentially malignant

Unpredictable
What is the most common soft tissue tumor?

Is it malignant or benign?
Lipoma

Benign
What is the most common sarcoma for late-middle-aged to elderly people?
Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma
Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma:

- Location
- Diagnosis how?
- Symptoms
- Treatment
Lower extremity

By exclusion

PAINLESS, but growing masses

Wide resection + chemo
(+/- radiation)