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105 Cards in this Set

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The sciatic nerve branches into what two major nerves in the leg?
Tibial nerve

Common fibular (peroneal) nerve
Where does the lateral sural cutaneous branch from?
Common fibular nerve
Where does the Superficial fibular nerve branch from?
Common fibular nerve
1. Lateral Sural Cutaneous nerve
2. Superficial Fibular nerve
3. Sural nerve
4. Deep Fibular nerve
Cutaneous innervation
Where does the sural nerve enter the foot?
Posterior to the lateral malleolus
What is the relationship of the superficial fibular nerve to the inferior extensor retinaculum?
It is superficial to it.
What is the major vein in the leg?
Great Saphenous vein.
Where does the great saphenous vein begin?
At the dorsal venous plexus
Where does the great saphenous vein end?
Femoral vein.
Where does the saphenous nerve begin?
Begins at the terminal branch of the femoral nerve.

(near the proximal anteriomedial portion of the leg)
Where is the relation of the saphenous nerve to the medial malleolus?
Anterior to malleolus
What attaches at Gerdy's tubercle?
Illiotibial tract
What are the muscles of the Pes anserinus
Sartorius
Gracilis
Semitendinosus
The sural nerve branches from what two nerves?
Common fibular

Tibial
What nerve supplies medial portion of foot?
Saphenous nerve
What nerve supplies the lateral portion of foot?
Sural nerve
What nerve supplies the posterior side of foot?
Tibial nerve
What nerve supplies anterior muscles of leg?
Deep Fibular nerve
What is the relationship of superficial veins and nerves to the extensor retinaculum?
Superficial to it.
1. S1
2. L5
3. L4
Origin of dermatone innervation
1. Iliotibial tract
2. Biceps Femoris
3. Fibularis Longus muscle
4. Extensor Digitorum Longus
5. Extensor Hallucis Longus
6. Fibularis Brevis
7. Fibularis Tertius
8. Extensor Digitorum Longus
9. Quadriceps Femoris muscles via patellor ligament
10. Pes Anserinus
11. Tibialis Anterior muscle
12. Extensor Hallucis Longus muscle
Name the attachments
Fibularis Longus muscle inserts where?
Medial cuneiform

Base of 1st metatarsal (plantarly)
Fibularis Brevis muscle inserts where?
Base of 5th metatarsal
Fibularis Tertius muscle inserts where?
Base of 5th metatarsal
What are the borders of the anterior compartment of the leg?
1. Anterior Intermuscular Septum
2. Interosseus membrane
3. Deep fascia of the leg
4. Tibia
What are the borders of the lateral compartment of the leg?
1. Anterior Intermuscular Septum
2. Posterior Intermuscular Septum
3. Deep fascia of the leg
4. Fibula
What are the borders of the Deep Posterior compartment?
1. Interosseus membrane
2. Transverse Intermuscular septum
3. Tibia
4. Fibula
What are the borders of the Superficial Posterior Compartment?
1. Posterior Intermuscular Septum
2. Transverse Intermuscular Septum
3. Deep Fascia of the leg
1. Fibula
2. Tibia
3. Anterior Intermuscular Septum
4. Posterior Intermuscular Septum
5. Interosseus membrane
6. Transverse Intermuscular Septum
7. Anterior Compartment
8. Lateral Compartment
9. Deep Posterior Compartment
10. Superficial Posterior Compartment
Name
In the Anterior compartment, what is the innervating nerve and action of the muscles?
Deep Fibular Nerve

Dorsiflex Ankle
Extend Toes
In the Lateral compartment, what is the innervating nerve and action of the muscles?
Superficial Fibular Nerve

Evert Foot
Weakly Plantarflex Ankle
In the Deep Posterior compartment, what is the innervating nerve and action of the muscles?
Tibial Nerve

Plantarflex Ankle
Invert Foot
Flex Toes
In the Superficial Posterior compartment, what is the innervating nerve and action of the muscles?
Tibial Nerve

Plantarflexes Ankle
What structures contribute to the capsule of the knee? x4
1. Lateral/Medial Patellar Retinacula
2. Paterllar Tendon
3. Iliotibial tract
4. Quadriceps tendon
What are the muscles of the anterior leg?
1. Tibialis Anterior
2. Extensor Digitorum Longus
3. Extensor Hallucis Longus
4. Peroneus Tertius
What muscles insert into the foot POSTERIOR to the transverse tarsal joint?
1. Gastrocnemius
2. Plantaris
3. Soleus
Where would you note a common fibular nerve damage?
By the fibula head, right before it branches into deep and superficial fibular nerves.
Loss of dorsiflexion and eversion indicates what nerve damage?
Common fibular nerve
Loss of eversion indicates what type of nerve damage?
Superficial fibular nerve.
Describe the course of the ANTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY and the DEEP FIBULAR NERVE in the leg:

- Proximal leg
- Distal Leg
- Ankle
Between Tibularis Anterior and Extensor Digitorum Longus

Between Tibularis Anterior and Extensor Hallucis Longus

Extensor Hallucis longus will cross OVER the artery and nerve.
Describe the location and attachments of the Superior Extensor Retinaculum.
Anterior ankle, just above malleoli

Extends from fibula to tibia
Describe the shape and attachment(s) of the inferior extensor retinaculum.
Y-shaped

Superior band attaches from calcaneous to medial malleolus

Interior band blends with plantar aponeurosis
What does the tendon extensor hallucis longus do at the ankle region?
Crosses over

Deep Fibular nerve
and
Dorsalis Pedis artery
(continuation of anterior tibial artery)
Where on the foot is a good location for taking a pulse? What vessel is this?
Between the tendons of extensor digitorum longus AND extensor hallucis longus.

Dorsalis Pedis artery
Short extensors of foot:
- where are they
- what are they called
- which toe does not have one
They lie deep to the extensor tendons.

Extensor hallucis brevis
Extensor digitorum brevis

5th toe does not have one
Where would you find the arcuate artery?
Runs transverse, under the extensor tendons, near PROXIMAL ends of metatarsals.
What nerves supply the 1st and 2nd toes?
Deep Fibular nerve - btw toes

Superficial Fibular nerves - outer edges of both toes.
Inferior Fibular Retinaculum is located where?
Entirely on the calcaneous
Inferior Fibular Retinaculum holds what?
Tendons of Fibularis longus and Fibularis brevis muscles
How do the tendons of the fibularis longus and fibularis brevis enter the foot?
Posterior to the lateral malleolus.
The superior fibular retinaculum is located where?
Calcaneous to lateral malleolus
Dorsal Venous Arch gives rise to what?
Great Saphenous vein
Small Saphenous vein
Saphenous vein
1. Saphenous nerve
4. Medial Plantar nerve
5. Lateral Plantar nerve
6. Sural nerve
7. Calcaneal branches of (medial) tibial nerve and (lateral) sural nerve.
Name the innvervating nerves
1. Superficial fibular nerve
2. Superior extensor retinaculum
3. Lateral Malleolus
4. Venous network of lateral malleolus and tributaries of small saphenous vein
5. Lateral Dorsal Cutaneous Nerve (branch of sural nerve)
6. Intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve (branch of superficial fibular nerve)
7. Tendons of extensor digitorum longus
8. Dorsal digital nerves
9. Tendon of tibialis anterior
10. Saphenous nerve
11. Venous network of medial malleolus and tributaries of great saphenous vein.
12. Medial malleolus
13. Medial Dorsal Cutaneous Nerves (branches of superficial nerve)
14. Dorsal Venous Arch
15. Dorsal Digital Nerve (Continuation of Deep Fibular Nerve btw 1st and 2nd digits)
16. Tendon of extensor hallucis longus
17. Dorsal Digital Arteries
18. Fibularis Longus and Brevis
20. Extensor Digitorum Longus
21. Extensor Hallucis Longus
22. Inferior Extensor Retinaculum
23. Extensor Hallucis Brevis
Name all
What holds down the tendons of the fibularis longus and fibularis brevis?
Extensor Retinaculum

and

Fibular Retinaculum
Tendon sheaths provide what?
Lubrication
Fibularis Tertius tendons runs how in terms of the malleolus?
Anterior to Lateral Malleolus
What is the action of the Fibularis Tertius?
Dorsiflex and Evert foot
What are the actions of the Fibularis Longus and Fibularis Brevis?
Evert Foot mostly
Where is the Inferior Fibular Retinaculum?
Completely on the Calcaneus
Where is the Superior Fibular Retinaculum?
Extends from the calcaneus (lateral side) to lateral malleolus.
What type of fascia is over the anterior compartment of the leg?
Crural fascia.
What is the medical terminology for shin splints and describe the etiology.
Anterior Compartment Syndrome

The crural fascia and injury (possibly due to strenuous exercise) cuts off blood supply and resulting in further damage to muscles. (Anoxic Necrosis)
Describe the insertions of all muscles posterior to the transverse tarsal joint.
The GASTROCNEMIUS and SOLEUS join to end with the calcaneal tendon.

The PLANTARIS tendon also attaches to the calcaneus but as its own tendon.
Answer this shit
Shit answered
What are the muscles of the deep posterior compartment of the leg?
1. Flexor Digitorum Longus
2. Flexor Hallucis Longus
3. Tibialis Posterior
4. Popliteus
What are the muscles of the superficial posterior compartment of the leg?
1. Gastrocnemius
2. Plantaris
3. Soleus
Fibularis longus and fibularis brevis is held posterior to the lateral malleolus by what? Identify which overlap each other.
Inferior Fibular Retinaculum AND
Inferior Extensor Retinaculum overlap.

Superior Fibular Retinaculum
1. Medial head of Gastrocnemius
2. Plantaris
3. Insert for Semimembranosus
4. Lateral head of Gastrocnemius
5. Popliteus muscle
6. Insert for Popliteus
7. Soleus
8. Soleus
9. Flexor Digitorum Longus
10. Tibialis Posterior
11. Flexor Hallucis Longus
12. Fibularis Brevis
13. Insert for Gastrocnemius, Soleus. Also for Plantaris
14. Insert for Tibialis Posterior
15. Insert for Tibialis Anterior
16. Insert for Fibularis Longus
17. Insert for Flexor Hallucis Longus
18. Insert for Flexor Digitorum Longus
Posterior Leg Origins and Inserts
What is the superiomedial boundary for the Popliteal Fossa?
Semitendinosis

Semimembranosis
What is the superiolateral boundary for the Popliteal Fossa?
Biceps Femoris
What is the inferiolateral boundary for the Popliteal Fossa?
Lateral Head of Gastrocnemius
What is the inferiomedial boundary for the Popliteal Fossa?
Medial Head of Gastrocnemius
What is the floor of the popliteal fossa?
Popliteus, Femur, and Oblique Popliteal ligament
Describe the location of the Inferior lateral and medial genicular arteries.
In the popliteal fossa, inferior to the knee joint.
1. Small Saphenous vein
2. Sural nerve
ID
1. Medial sural cutaneous nerve
2. Sural nerve
ID
1. Lateral Sural Cutaneous
2. Medial Sural Cutaneous
3. Sural Nerve
4. Tibial nerve (via medial calcaneal branch)
ID
Lymph from posterior leg drains where?
Popliteal lymph nodes
Describe Small saphenous vein:
- origin
- respect to malleolus
- empties where?
Dorsal Veous arch on LATERAL SIDE

Passes posterior to lateral malleolus with sural nerve

Popliteal vein
How does the fibular artery travel in the leg?
Between the FHL and Fibula
How does the Posterior tibial artery travel in the leg?
Between the FDL and the Tibularis Posterior
What does the posterior tibial artery run with?
Tibial nerve
Describe the tendons, nerves, and blood supply behind the medial malleolus.
From most medial to lateral:

Tibularis Posterior
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Posterior Tibial Artery
Tibial Nerve
Flexor Hallucis Longus
Describe insertion of Tibularis Anterior.
1st metatarsal on medial cuneiform
Describe insertion of Tibularis Posterior.
Posterior on navicular
Actions of TA.
Dorsiflex and Invert foot
Action of EHL
Extends 1st toe and dorsiflex foot
Action of EDL
Extends lateral 4 toes and dorsiflex foot
Action of Fibularis Longus
Evert foot and plantar flexes foot
Actions of Gastrocnemius
Flexes knee
Plantar flexes foot
Actions of Soleus
Plantar flexes foot
Actions of TP
Inverts foot and Plantar flexes foot
Actions of FDL
Flexes lateral four toes

and

Plantar flexes foot
Actions of FHL
Flexes 1st toe

and

Plantar flexes foot
Innervation for dorsum of foot?
Deep Fibular nerve
Innervation for sole of foot?
Medial and Lateral Plantar nerves
What are the branches of the popliteal artery?
Superior lateral genicular
Superior medial genicular
Middle Genicular
Inferior lateral genicular
Infereior medial genicular
What are the terminal branches of the popliteal artery.
Anterior Tibial Artery
Posterior Tibial Artery
What are the branches of the Posterior Tibial Artery?
Fibular artery

Branches to bone and muscle
What are the branches of the Anterior tibial artery?
Anterior tibial recurrent
Anteior medial malleolar artery
Anterior lateral malleolar artery
Branches to muscles
What are the terminal branches of the posterior tibial artery?
Medial Plantar artery
Lateral Plantar artery
What are the terminal branches of the anterior tibial artery?
Become dorsalis pedis in ankle.
What are the branches of dorsalis pedis artery?
Lateral tarsal
Medial tarsal
Arcuate artery
What is the terminal branch of dorsalis pedis artery?
Deep plantar artery