Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/36

Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Dysplasia
Condition affecting growth or development

due to intrinsic defect (genetics)
What are the two types of skeletal deformity and what is their difference?
Disproportionate
(Trunk & Extremities unequally affected)

Proportionate
(Trunk & Extremities equally affected)
What is the most common form of skeletal Dysplasia?
Dwarfism
What is the most common form of Dwarfism?
Achondroplasia
What type of dysplasia is attributed to achondroplasia?
Disproportionate dysplasia
What is the etiology of Achondroplasia?
Point mutation in the gene encoding Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3)
T/F - Achondroplasia affects intermembranous ossification of the bones.
False. It affects the endochondral ossification (where pre-formed cartilage is replaced by calcification)
What are the characteristics of achondroplasia? x3
Spinal stenosis
Trident hand
Disproportionate dwarfism
Define dystrophy
Condition affecting growth/development due to extrinsic factors (malnutrition, hormone, or metabolism)
What is the etiology of Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy?
Abnormality in gene encoding DYSTROPHIN
What are the clinical symptoms of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy starting at birth.
Normal at birth

Symptoms appear at approximately 18 months
(Calf pseudohypertrophy)
(Gower's manuever)
Osteogenesis Imperfecta

- etiology
Connective tissue disorder due to mutations in gene for Type I collagen
What are the symptoms of Osteogenesis Imperfecta? x3
Blue Sclerae
Abnormal Dentinogenesis
Bone fragility = multiple fx
What are the most common childhood deformities?
In-toeing & out-toeing
In-toeing:

- AKA
- etiology
- prognosis
Metatarsus Adductus

Packaging defect in the womb

90% will spontaneously heal
Clubfoot:

- AKA
- characteristics x3
- etiology
- treatment
Talipes Equinovarus

Plantar flexion (equinus)
Forefoot adductus
Heel varus

Germ plasm defect

Manipulation/Casting
Surgery
Femoral Anteversion:

- character
- prognosis
Internal rotation of hip

Spontaneously heal 6-8 years
Tibial Torsion

- character
- prognosis
Lateral malleolus is anterior or in the same plane as medial malleolus.
(normally, lateral malleolus is posterior to medial malleolus)

Spontaneously heals
At what age is in-toeing normal for children and why?
Prior to age four, it is normal

Femoral anteversion & tibial torsion
Flatfoot:

- AKA
- Character
- Assessment test?
- Prognosis
- Treatment
Pes Plano Valgus

Absent longitudinal arch

Flexibility test

Arch won't be there ever

If arch seen in flexibility test, then no treatment.

If no arch seen in flexibility test, then possible surgery due to

Congenital Vertical Talus or Tarsal Coalition
DDH

- what does it stand for?
- incidence
- risk factors x3
Development dysplasia of hip

1 : 1,000

First born
female
positive family hx.
List two diagnostic tools for DDH.
Ortalani test

Barlow test
SCFE:

- what does it stand for?
- symptoms x3
- treatment
Slipped Capped Femoral Epiphysis

Pain in hip
External rotation of hip
Deformity of hip

Surgical pinning
Legg-Perthes:

- etiology
- risk factors x2
- clinical symptoms x4
- bilateral or unilateral?
- treatment
Idiopathic necrosis of femerol head

Males (4x's more than females)
Age 2-12 (mostly 4-8 years old)

Limp
Ipsilateral knee pain
Painful internal rotation
No range of Motion

90% unilateral

Containment of femoral head in acetabulum via surgery or bracing
Genu Valgum
__________________________
Genu varum ("Bow legged")

Normal newborn variant

Spontaneously heals at 3 y.o.

If persists beyond 3 y.o., than rule out Blount's and Rickets
What's this called?

Is this normal?

Prognosis?

Possible pathology?
Scoliosis requirements
Greater than 10 degree lateral curvature
Classifications of Scoliosis. x3
Idiopathic
Congenital
Neuromuscular
Organisms responsible for Osteomyelitis

- most common
- neonates
- 6 mo. to 4 yrs
- puncture wound pts
Staphylococcus

Streptococcus

I. Influenze (not so common now)

Pseudomonas
Symptoms of osteomyelitis. x4
Pain
Swelling
Tenderness
Psuedoparalysis
What is a direct extension from adjacent osteomyelitis?
Septic arthritis
Septic arthritis

- how does it occur x2
- diagnostic tool
Hematogenous seeding or
Direct extension from adjacent osteomyelitis

Joint aspiration
Septic arthritis

- treatment
Aspiration/antibiotics

Hip surgery drainage
Septic arthritis

- how does it occur x2
- diagnostic tool
Hematogenous seeding or
Direct extension from adjacent osteomyelitis

Joint aspiration
Septic arthritis

- treatment
Aspiration/antibiotics

Hip surgery drainage
T/F - There is a potential death of physis in children
True