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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an attachment behavioral system
an innate, biologically based system that has been shaped by evolution to help ensure our safety and survival
What was Watson's approach? Who overturned Watson's approach?
Behaviorism reigned (rewards and punishments).
Caregiver-Child attachments became impt, overturned by Harlow, Bowlby and Ainsworth.
What is felt security in Attachment?
Child feels safe, secure, and free from impending threat or harm due to caregiver's presence.
What are the 3 key variables in a child's internal control system in an attachment behavioral system?
1)his or her own internal states
2)availability and responsiveness of the caregiver.
3)presence of threats in the environment
(all to restore proximity and felt security)
What are working models in attachment?
internal psychological structures that contain and organize the conscious and unconsious beliefs, expectations, and feelings that people have about themselves, others and relationships
What are the two key functions of the Attachment Behavioral System, in regard to interaction with caregiver behaviors?
1) detect threats in envrironment, with feelings fo anxiety cuing the infant to seek proximity
2) believes the caregiver is available
What are the two main dimensions that adults differ along attachment theory?
Lawful Discontinuity
observed discontinuities that can be explained by events that disrupt the child-caregiver bond in some way
Simpson, Rholes, and Nelligan (1992):female partner exposed to dark isolation chamber
Secure female: became more anxious and afraid and turned to their partners for comfort

Avoidant female: anxiety and fear increased yet they would not turn to their partner for comfort
Simpson et. al., (1992):
What does the graph look like when x-axis is Woman's Anxiety Fear and y-axis is comfort/support-seeking?
a classic antagonistic with the left x-axis being low and the right x-axis being high
When people seek help for relationship difficulties, who do they turn to?
familiar channels: clergy, family physician, or an attorney
What is the typical onset of distress?
can be specific bad events but most often there is no specific point,it's just gradual.
What does an uphill struggle mean in terms of relationship therapy?
when the couple has longstanding maladaptive strategies to cope with distress.
What are the most common problems that couples therapists report? Reported by Whisman, Dixon, and Johnson (1997)
Communication (87%)
Power Struggles (62%)
Unrealistic Expectations (50%)
Lack of Loving Feelings (40%)
Serious Ind Problems (38%)
What was Sigmund Freud indisputably correct about?
Conversing about problems with a sympathetic but uninvested individual can be therapeutic.
Models of Couple Therapy

Psychodynamic Models
which emphasize the role of unconscious forces in how partners perceive one another's behaviors
Models of Couple Therapy

Systems Models
which emphasize the rules that govern and constraint the exchange of behaviors
Models of Couple Therapy

Behavioral Models
which emphasize the rewarding and punishing properties of exchanged behaviors and their associated cognitions
Models of Couple Therapy

Emotion Models
which emphasize the ways in which different affective exchanges can inhibit and promote intimate bonds.
Psychodynamic Models

Object Relations
object is internal representation that is stable.

unconsious guided development to intimate relationships
Psychodynamic Models

Object Relations Perspective
Repressed introjected infantile anger is
Projected onto partner
Object Relations Perspective

Projective Identification
How the partner responds to projections from repressed anger from the partner projecting
Object Relations Perspective

Introjective Identification
the projecting partner takes in the modified version that she had projected to her partner and assimilates to this new view of herself
What are the good steps in Object Relations Perspective when receiving projection?
1)accept projection
2)temp identify with it
3)modify it
4)return it detoxified form through a mental process "containment"
How do couples therapists operating from the object relations perspective weaken harmful effects of projection?
They improve the way that partners CONTAIN one another's projection
What is an interesting implication about the object relations approach?
Treatment can be viewed as successful even if the relationship ends.
Systems Models

Negative Feedback
behavior of partner's decrease each other's behavior
EX: Tali mad, BF understands
Systems Models

Positive Feedback
behavior of parner's increase each other's behavior

EX: Tali mad, BF says FU
Systems Models

it is impt for an equilibrium to maintain balance and ensure stability
Systems Models

William Lederer and Don Jackson (1968): Quid pro quo
a Latin term meaning 'this for that'or 'one thing for another.'
Implicit and unstated bargaining arrangements in intimate relationships.
Systems Models

What is the Systems-oriented interventions designed for?
to make the implicit rules explicit, particularly in the service of establishing new rules that allow both partners greater flexibility and range in their behavior
Systems Models

What is the example of an unusual intervention with Shoham and Rohrbaugh (2002)
Husband pretend to look miserable and Wife give him soup silently. It was humorous because it was a PARADOXICAL INTERVENTION
What does Bolster feel is better Implicit help or Explicit help?
Invisible support is the best b/c it is unobtrusive while partner is under stress
Why is stress like a test or prism?
It is like a test b/c under acute or chronic stress you fail or pass your partner's stress test. It is like a prism b/c sometimes it reveals hidden things about you
what happens when you have low chronic stress and acute stress?
There is weak effect on the relationship
What happens when you have high chronic stress and acute stress?
There is a strong effect on the relationship
Does acute stress directly affect relationships?
Yes, that was what Prof. Bradbury was trying to demonstrate with his example
couples do better w BCT, 4 yrs later 38% divorce
Not any better than BCT alone
30% divorce
love the quirks, empathic joining and unified detachment
as affective as BCT
Inside oriented marital therapy
helps couple to integrate maladaptive emotions and expectations
What is LeVine’s goals of the family?
Physical Survival
Look out for family members
Economic Survival
Share resources (save economically)
Develop and understand who we are
Since late 1980’s there has been a tremendous surge and how detrimental it is to children.
1)Child feels threatened
2)Reduced parental monitoring
3)Modeling conflict for children
Chronic exposure to conflict elevates stress hormones in children. Child is chronically over-aroused, hypervigilant, and/or desensitized to angry exchanges
Their radar is more in tuned to parent conflict but are desensitized to it.
Child’s interpretations of conflict are important. Is the conflict …
About me?
Girls internalize more and boys externalize more
Boys typically have more divorce-related problems than girls
The father typically leaves the home which leaves the boy more vulnerable
Half-Full: Hetherington based on quantitative finding
Vast majority of people are doing just fine, even the kids that have to go through divorce. 70-80% are doing just fine. Even though there is a doubling it is not as many as that are doing fine.
Sanders et al. 1999: Results
On the cognitive variables, these couples showed
More negative self-referent thoughts.
“gee, what a loser I am”
Fewer positive partner-referent thoughts.